Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute interstitial nephropathy characterized by high fever and varying degrees of renal insufficiency and hemorrhage. HFRS is caused by viruses belonging to the old world lineage of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Various haemorrhagic fevers with a very similar syndrome have been reported throughout Europe and Asia, notably HFRS in the former Soviet Union, Songo fever in China, epidemic nephritis or epidemic haemorrhagic fever in Eastern Europe and Japan, and Hantaan virus in Korea. Several rodents and other small mammals harbor hantaviruses, and in urban areas, where rodent control is feasible, efforts can be made to reduce contact between humans and rodent excreta.
Hantavirus vaccines against HFRS have been produced by growing hantavirus (Hantaan or Seoul virus strains) in rodent brain or cell cultures followed by inactivation by either formalin or beta-propiolactone. The inactivated virus suspension is then formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. These vaccines have contributed to the reduction of HFRS in many countries in Asia.
HFRS vaccine standardization
The development of HFRS vaccines in several Asian countries led to the adoption of guidelines arising from an expert working group convened by the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO in 1989.
Requirements for Haemorrhagic Fever with Rental Syndrome (HFRS) vaccine (inactivated), Annex 2, Technical Report Series No. 848
No WHO reference materials for HFRS vaccines are currently available.