Bulletin of the World Health Organization

International perspectives on the ethics and regulation of human cell and tissue transplantation

Annette Schulz-Baldes, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Alexander Morgan Capron

Volume 85, Number 12, December 2007, 941-948

Table 2. Preliminary ethical framework for the regulation of human cell (HC) and human tissue (HT) transplantation

Fundamental ethical principle Specification in the context of HC/HT transplantation
Respect for persons • Informed and voluntary consent for living HC/HT removal• Explicit consent during lifetime or presumed consent for deceased HC/HT removal• Option to veto future uses of donated HC/HT for research and education (and/or cosmetic applications and/or international circulation)• Stewardship for donated HCs/HTs• Informed and voluntary consent for HC/HT transplantation
Non-maleficence • Minimal quality and safety standards for HC/HT procurement, processing and transplantation• Long-term follow-up of living donors and transplant recipients
Justice • Fair criteria for donor identification and selection• Unpaid donation to reduce inequities in donation• Fair HC/HT distribution• General priority of local and/or national self-sufficiency to reduce global inequities in donation of and access to HCs/HTs
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