Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Political and social context of not attaining the Millennium Development Goal to reduce poverty

Marco Palma-Solís, Diana Gil-González, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet, María Teresa Ruiz-Cantero

Volume 86, Number 10, October 2008, 772-779

Table 3. Associations between a reduction in poverty and the social and political context in accordance with Target 1 of the Millennium Development Goals, 2002

Variable Achieveda
Not achieveda
Simple regression
Multiple regression
No. of countries Average value of variable No. of countries Average value of variable Crude odds ratio (95% CI) P-value Multiple odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Government consumption (per capita)b 152 46981 2546 38358 13.80(2.92–65.26) 0.00 9.80(1.82–52.75) 0.00
Domestic consumption (per capita)b 152 1840467 2843 1463309 11.52(2.44–54.28) 0.00 0.94(0.08–11.18) 0.96
Gross formation of capital (per capita)b 152 706168 2643 59795 12.40(2.62–58.66) 0.00 1.70(0.16–18.50) 0.66
Balance of imports–exports (per capita)b 89 2901–1636 1159 3064–866 4.77(1.51–15.05) 0.00 5.34(1.32–21.54) 0.02
Gini indexc 124 35.745.7 2739 33.849.9 4.33(1.26–14.88) 0.02 4.74(1.12–20.01) 0.03
Urban population (%) 152 62.434.7 3536 60.426.3 7.71(1.64–36.24) 0.01 2.40(0.42–13.65) 0.33
Freedom indexd 89 2.05.2 3833 3.25.5 0.77(0.28–2.23) 0.63

CI, confidence interval.a First row of information corresponds to the category of reference.b Constant dollars at 1990.c Values between 0 and 100 (0 = no inequalities; 100 = maximum inequality).d Values between 1 and 7 (1 = maximum freedom; 7 = minimum freedom).

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