Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Impact of an integrated nutrition and health programme on neonatal mortality in rural northern India

Abdullah H Baqui, Emma K Williams, Amanda M Rosecrans, Praween K Agrawal, Saifuddin Ahmed, Gary L Darmstadt, Vishwajeet Kumar, Usha Kiran, Dharmendra Panwar, Ramesh C Ahuja, Vinod K Srivastava, Robert E Black, Manthuram Santosham

Volume 86, Number 10, October 2008, 796-804

Table 2. Selected maternal and household characteristics of recently delivered women by study district: baseline (2001–2002) and endline (2004–2005) surveys

Characteristica Number of recently delivered women (%)
Baseline survey
Endline survey
Comparison district (n = 6 196) Intervention district (n = 8 756) Comparison district (n = 6 014) Intervention district (n = 7 812)
Maternal characteristics
Age at most recent birth
< 20 years 1267 (20.4) 2012 (23.0) 941 (15.7) 1366 (17.5)
20–34 years 4498 (72.6) 6000 (68.5) 4613 (76.8) 5663 (72.6)
35–49 years 431 (7.0) 742 (8.5) 453 (7.5) 775 (9.9)
Education level
Illiterate 3914 (63.2) 6707 (76.6) 3532 (58.7) 5845 (74.8)
Literate, but middle school not completed 988 (15.9) 1161 (13.3) 915 (15.2) 991 (12.7)
Middle school completed 766 (12.4) 559 (6.4) 907 (15.1) 608 (7.8)
High school completed and above 528 (8.5) 329 (3.7) 660 (11.0) 368 (4.7)
Parity
1 1269 (20.5) 1648 (18.8) 1313 (21.9) 1546 (19.8)
2–3 2313 (37.3) 3080 (35.2) 2401 (39.9) 2850 (36.5)
4–5 1504 (24.3) 2241 (25.6) 1396 (23.2) 2011 (25.7)
≥ 6 1110 (17.9) 1787 (20.4) 904 (15.0) 1405 (18.0)

Household characteristics
Religion
Hindu 5834 (94.2) 7128 (81.4) 5666 (94.2) 6265 (80.2)
Muslim/other 362 (5.8) 1628 (18.6) 348 (5.8) 1547 (19.8)
Caste
Scheduled castes/tribes 2179 (43.8) 2874 (40.6) 2566 (42.7) 3166 (40.6)
Other backward class b 2163 (43.5) 3371 (47.6) 2583 (43.0) 3723 (47.7)
Others 634 (12.7) 834 (11.8) 858 (14.3) 1775 (11.7)
Standard-of-living index score
Low 3293 (53.2) 4072 (46.5) 2921 (48.6) 3122 (40.0)
Medium 1977 (31.9) 3526 (40.3) 1926 (32.0) 3153 (40.3)
High 926 (14.9) 1158 (13.2) 1167 (19.4) 1537 (19.7)

a χ² analyses for difference in distribution between intervention and comparison at baseline and endline were all significant at P < 0.05.b As notified by central government of India who are entitled for positive discrimination and 27% of government jobs are reserved for them.

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