Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study

E Danielle Rentz, Lauren Lewis, Oscar J Mujica, Dana B Barr, Joshua G Schier, Gayanga Weerasekera, Peter Kuklenyik, Michael McGeehin, John Osterloh, Jacob Wamsley, Washington Lum, Camilo Alleyne, Nestor Sosa, Jorge Motta, Carol Rubin

Volume 86, Number 10, October 2008, 749-756

Table 1. Descriptive characteristics of case patients with acute renal failure and control patients, Panama 2006

Characteristic Cases (N = 42)
Controls (N = 140)
n % n %
Sex
Female 15 35.7 58 41.4
Male 27 64.3 82 58.6
Age (years)
18–24 0 2 1.4
25–34 4 9.5 8 5.7
35–44 1 2.4 2 1.4
45–54 3 7.1 13 9.3
55–64 8 19.0 45 32.1
65–74 14 33.3 36 25.7
≥ 75 12 28.6 34 24.3
Region of residence
Cocle 7 16.7 4 2.9
Colon 1 2.4 5 3.6
Herrera 1 2.4 6 4.3
Los Santos 0 3 2.1
Metropolitana 16 38.0 69 49.3
Panama Este 0 2 1.4
Panama Oeste 5 11.9 21 15.0
San Miguelito 10 23.8 28 20.0
Veraguas 2 4.8 2 1.4
Symptomsa
General 34 81.0 100 71.4
Gastrointestinal 36 85.7 54 38.6
Respiratory 27 64.3 56 40.0
Urinary 34 81.0 14 10.0
Neurological 35 83.3 72 51.4
Proxy interview 32 76.2 17 12.1

Variable Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

Age (years) 65.2 16.6 63.6 14.7
Number of symptoms 4.0 3.9 8.5 5.0
Serum creatinine level (mg/dl) 11.1 5.2 1.4 1.8

a General symptoms included self-reported fever, headache, loss of appetite, tiredness, dizziness, muscle pain and joint pain. Gastrointestinal symptoms included self-reported vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea, stomach pain and epigastric discomfort. Respiratory symptoms included self-reported cough, shortness of breath and expectoration. Urinary symptoms included self-reported oliguria and anuria. Neurological symptoms included self-reported difficulty in speaking, numbness, paralysis, weakness, loss of tactile sensation, loss of consciousness, convulsion, difficulty in swallowing and facial muscle weakness.

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