Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study

E Danielle Rentz, Lauren Lewis, Oscar J Mujica, Dana B Barr, Joshua G Schier, Gayanga Weerasekera, Peter Kuklenyik, Michael McGeehin, John Osterloh, Jacob Wamsley, Washington Lum, Camilo Alleyne, Nestor Sosa, Jorge Motta, Carol Rubin

Volume 86, Number 10, October 2008, 749-756

Table 2. Frequency of potential risk factors and odds ratios for the onset of acute renal failure for these risk factors in case and control patients, Panama 2006

Potential risk factor Cases (N = 42)
Controls (N = 140)
Odds ratioa(95% CI)
n % n %
Any pre-existing condition
Diabetes 15 35.7 40 28.6 1.62 (0.75–3.50)
Hypertension 30 71.4 76 54.3 2.75 (1.13–6.71)
Renal disease 12 28.6 19 13.6 2.49 (1.04–5.99)
Cardiovascular 14 33.3 39 27.9 1.23 (0.56–2.70)
Other 13 31.0 51 36.4 0.76 (0.36–1.61)
Any ACE inhibitorb
Yes 26 61.9 34 24.3 5.39 (2.39–12.2)
No 16 38.1 106 75.7 Referent

ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; CI, confidence interval.a Statistically significant findings are in boldface type.b ACE inhibitors examined included enalapril, ramipril and lisinopril.

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