Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study

E Danielle Rentz, Lauren Lewis, Oscar J Mujica, Dana B Barr, Joshua G Schier, Gayanga Weerasekera, Peter Kuklenyik, Michael McGeehin, John Osterloh, Jacob Wamsley, Washington Lum, Camilo Alleyne, Nestor Sosa, Jorge Motta, Carol Rubin

Volume 86, Number 10, October 2008, 749-756

Table 3. Responses to open-ended and direct questions about the ingestion of prescription liquid cough syrup and odds ratios for the onset of acute renal failure for affirmative responses in case and control patients, Panama 2006

Response Cases (N = 42)
Controls (N = 140)
Crude oddsratioa(95% CI) Adjusted odds ratioa,b(95% CI)
n % n %
Open-ended question
Yes 17 40.5 4 2.9 13.1 (3.92–43.6) 11.1 (3.17–39.0)
No 25 59.5 136 97.1 Referent Referent
Direct questionc
Yes 37 90.2 29 20.9 37.3 (8.82–158) 31.0 (6.93–139)
No 4 7.3 110 79.1 Referent Referent

CI, confidence interval.a Statistically significant findings are in boldface type.b Adjusted model controlled for pre-existing hypertension, pre-existing renal disease and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including enalapril, lisinopril and ramipril.c One case patient who was unsure about the consumption of liquid syrups was coded as missing.

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