Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries

Adam Leive, Ke Xu

Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 849-856

Table 2. Mean and standard deviation of variables included in the study of household coping strategies (selling assets, borrowing or both) in the face of health shock in 15 African countries

Variable Burkina Faso n = 4814
Chad n = 4535
Congo n = 2754
Cote d’Ivoire n = 2980
Ethiopia n = 4184
Ghana n = 3886
Kenya n = 4520
Malawi n = 5276
Mali n = 3969
Mauritania n = 3277
Namibia n = 4015
Senegal n = 2819
Swaziland n = 2670
Zambia n = 4092
Zimbabwe n = 4021
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Households selling assets, borrowing, or both 0.69 0.46 0.34 0.47 0.31 0.46 0.27 0.45 0.30 0.46 0.28 0.45 0.31 0.46 0.27 0.44 0.29 0.45 0.40 0.49 0.30 0.46 0.32 0.47 0.27 0.44 0.23 0.42 0.35 0.48
Household characteristics
Urban 0.16 0.36 0.22 0.41 0.91 0.29 0.67 0.47 0.13 0.34 0.45 0.50 0.41 0.49 0.15 0.36 0.32 0.47 0.54 0.50 0.33 0.47 0.47 0.50 0.29 0.45 0.34 0.47 0.34 0.47
Sizea 5.81 3.21 5.11 2.90 5.40 2.99 5.29 3.35 5.52 2.38 5.10 2.88 3.99 2.36 4.26 2.16 9.03 3.57 5.82 2.84 5.03 2.96 8.18 3.43 5.55 3.20 5.37 2.51 4.87 2.31
Household head characteristics
No primary school 0.83 0.37 0.66 0.47 0.13 0.34 0.38 0.49 0.42 0.49 0.37 0.48 0.10 0.30 0.22 0.42 0.76 0.43 0.61 0.49 0.30 0.46 0.64 0.48 0.25 0.43 0.15 0.36 0.11 0.31
Primary school 0.12 0.33 0.26 0.44 0.38 0.48 0.31 0.46 0.21 0.41 0.47 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.69 0.46 0.18 0.38 0.19 0.39 0.49 0.50 0.21 0.41 0.43 0.50 0.68 0.47 0.55 0.50
Secondary school or higher 0.04 0.20 0.08 0.27 0.49 0.50 0.31 0.46 0.37 0.48 0.16 0.37 0.42 0.49 0.08 0.28 0.07 0.25 0.20 0.40 0.22 0.41 0.15 0.36 0.32 0.47 0.17 0.38 0.34 0.47
Age > 60 years 0.22 0.42 0.19 0.39 0.19 0.40 0.21 0.40 0.22 0.41 0.29 0.45 0.14 0.35 0.17 0.38 0.52 0.50 0.30 0.46 0.30 0.46 0.43 0.49 0.30 0.46 0.18 0.39 0.26 0.44
Male 0.90 0.29 0.78 0.41 0.78 0.41 0.81 0.39 0.84 0.37 0.70 0.46 0.68 0.47 0.75 0.43 0.97 0.16 0.69 0.46 0.55 0.50 0.82 0.39 0.74 0.44 0.78 0.42 0.67 0.47
Hospitalization in previous year 0.13 0.34 0.12 0.32 0.15 0.36 0.13 0.34 0.05 0.21 0.20 0.40 0.14 0.35 0.19 0.39 0.08 0.27 0.23 0.42 0.16 0.37 0.14 0.35 0.09 0.29 0.18 0.38 0.11 0.31

SD, standard deviation.a Number of people living in the household.

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