Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries

Adam Leive, Ke Xu

Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 849-856

Table 3. Likelihood of borrowing and/or selling assets for each income quintile, type of household, characteristics of household head and level of expenditure for inpatient care, as determined by logit regression, using data from 15 African countries

Burkina Faso Chad Congo Cote d’Ivoire Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Malawi Mali Mauritania Namibia Senegal Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe
Income quintilea
2 0.30** –0.28** –0.41 0.20 –0.03 –0.08 –0.41** 0.19 –0.10 –0.00 –0.16 0.13 –0.33* 0.09 –0.02
(SE) (0.14) (0.13) (0.25) (0.14) (0.13) (0.12) (0.20) (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.14) (0.20) (0.20) (0.14) (0.19)
3 –0.04 –0.34*** –0.20 0.11 –0.39*** –0.09 –0.37* 0.30** –0.18 –0.16 –0.20 –0.16 –0.17 –0.04 0.07
(SE) (0.14) (0.13) (0.27) (0.15) (0.13) (0.13) (0.22) (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.14) (0.19) (0.23) (0.16) (0.21)
4 0.12 –0.47*** –0.51* –0.16 –0.34** –0.20 –0.67*** 0.36** –0.35** –0.08 –0.97*** –0.12 0.00 –0.21 –0.00
(SE) (0.15) (0.14) (0.28) (0.16) (0.14) (0.14) (0.23) (0.14) (0.14) (0.16) (0.16) (0.21) (0.26) (0.19) (0.20)
5 –0.18 –0.67*** –0.26 –0.28 –0.66*** –0.40** –1.19*** 0.33** –0.46*** –0.01 –1.63*** –0.17 –0.65*** –0.73*** –0.76***
(SE) (0.17) (0.15) (0.30) (0.18) (0.17) (0.16) (0.27) (0.16) (0.15) (0.18) (0.19) (0.22) (0.23) (0.25) (0.20)
Household characteristics
Urban –1.06*** –0.35*** –0.15 –0.05 0.09 0.02 –0.54*** –0.42*** –0.63*** –0.65*** 0.00 –0.11 –0.53*** 0.13 –0.62***
(SE) (0.09) (0.10) (0.22) (0.10) (0.15) (0.10) (0.17) (0.14) (0.11) (0.12) (0.10) (0.13) (0.17) (0.15) (0.13)
Size 0.04*** 0.01 0.07** 0.04*** 0.11*** –0.01 0.04 –0.00 0.05*** 0.03* 0.07*** 0.01 –0.01 0.01 0.06**
(SE) (0.02) (0.01) (0.03) (0.01) (0.02) (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.01) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.03)
Household head characteristics
Schoolingb
Primary –0.11 0.06 0.13 –0.06 0.13 0.01 –0.28 0.39*** –0.11 –0.13 –0.02 –0.05 –0.01 –0.24* 0.11
(SE) (0.12) (0.10) (0.30) (0.11) (0.11) (0.10) (0.18) (0.12) (0.11) (0.12) (0.12) (0.18) (0.22) (0.14) (0.20)
Secondary or higher –1.05*** –0.18 –0.01 –0.23 0.01 –0.27* –0.45** 0.12 –0.67*** –0.26* –0.09 –0.40** –0.22 –0.36 –0.48**
(SE) (0.17) (0.15) (0.31) (0.14) (0.11) (0.16) (0.22) (0.20) (0.24) (0.13) (0.17) (0.18) (0.26) (0.24) (0.23)
Age > 60 years 0.20* 0.17* 0.38* 0.15 0.12 0.60*** 0.67*** 0.50*** 0.20** 0.37*** 0.35*** 0.35** 0.28 0.52*** 0.56***
(SE) (0.11) (0.10) (0.22) (0.11) (0.10) (0.09) (0.16) (0.11) (0.08) (0.10) (0.12) (0.13) (0.19) (0.12) (0.16)
Male –0.50*** –0.36*** –0.31* –0.50*** 0.06 –0.70*** –0.34** –0.41*** 0.13 –0.49*** –0.40*** –0.49*** 0.01 –0.51*** –0.22
(SE) (0.15) (0.10) (0.19) (0.11) (0.12) (0.09) (0.15) (0.10) (0.27) (0.10) (0.09) (0.16) (0.18) (0.13) (0.13)
Level of expenditure for inpatient carec
1 0.42* 0.23 1.25*** 0.37 –0.24 0.72*** 0.09 0.46** 0.16 0.36 –0.31 0.53* 0.62 1.21*** –0.20
(SE) (0.24) (0.20) (0.40) (0.24) (0.35) (0.19) (0.27) (0.21) (0.27) (0.22) (0.24) (0.29) (0.40) (0.35) (0.35)
2 0.06 0.56*** 0.91** 0.51** 0.94*** 0.97*** 1.09*** 0.17 0.49** 0.72*** –0.05 0.79*** 0.50 0.18 0.01
(SE) (0.24) (0.18) (0.40) (0.23) (0.29) (0.17) (0.30) (0.25) (0.23) (0.23) (0.23) (0.29) (0.31) (0.20) (0.28)
3 0.19 0.76*** 1.03*** 0.01 1.03*** 1.15*** 0.76* 0.50** 0.62** 1.01*** 0.17 0.77*** 0.51 0.14 –0.38
(SE) (0.27) (0.20) (0.38) (0.24) (0.39) (0.17) (0.43) (0.22) (0.26) (0.20) (0.22) (0.27) (0.32) (0.26) (0.25)
4 0.16 1.14*** 1.49*** 0.49** 1.16*** 1.33*** 0.75* 0.18 1.02*** 1.03*** 0.13 –0.06 0.04 0.60*** –0.52*
(SE) (0.24) (0.21) (0.42) (0.23) (0.32) (0.18) (0.39) (0.22) (0.24) (0.25) (0.23) (0.36) (0.37) (0.23) (0.28)
5 0.35 0.67*** 1.81*** 0.66*** 1.68*** 1.83*** 1.29*** 0.53** 0.44** 1.50*** 0.08 1.06*** 0.09 0.45* –0.09
(SE) (0.29) (0.19) (0.36) (0.23) (0.35) (0.18) (0.38) (0.22) (0.22) (0.24) (0.25) (0.28) (0.36) (0.24) (0.31)
Constantd 1.41*** 0.53*** –0.67** –0.58*** –1.35*** –0.60*** 0.38 –1.02*** –0.74*** 0.32** –0.05 –0.32 –0.10 –0.34** 0.78***
(SE) (0.17) (0.13) (0.33) (0.15) (0.15) (0.13) (0.23) (0.14) (0.29) (0.14) (0.16) (0.24) (0.25) (0.17) (0.25)
N 4 480 3 027 2 313 2 598 4 099 3 528 3 836 4 336 2 995 2 583 2 849 2 388 1 779 3 094 2 381
RESET test: (Probability > χ²) 0.905 0.230 0.551 0.017 0.015 0.760 0.310 0.073 0.037 0.000 0.085 0.854 0.213 0.205 0.003

*P < 0.10, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01. SE, standard error.a Quintile 1 is the lowest income category and quintile 5 is the highest. Reference category: quintile 1.b Reference category: less than primary schooling.c Reference category: households with out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care.d The constant corresponds to the value of the regression function when each explanatory variable equals zero.

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