Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries

Adam Leive, Ke Xu

Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 849-856

Table 4. Average partial effectsa of out-of-pocket household expenditure for inpatient care,b as indicated by coefficients for five levels of expenditure, in 15 African countries

Country Expenditure levelc
1 2 3 4 5
Burkina Faso 0.077* 0.011 0.036 0.029 0.063
Chad 0.054 0.130*** 0.175*** 0.252*** 0.155***
Congo 0.279*** 0.203** 0.232*** 0.332*** 0.377***
Côte d’Ivoire 0.082 0.114** 0.003 0.110** 0.150***
Ethiopia –0.046 0.215*** 0.236*** 0.266*** 0.386***
Ghana 0.150*** 0.205*** 0.244*** 0.286*** 0.395***
Kenya 0.019 0.232*** 0.163* 0.161* 0.264***
Malawi 0.105** 0.037 0.114** 0.040 0.121**
Mali 0.037 0.115** 0.143** 0.240*** 0.103**
Mauritania 0.081 0.160*** 0.218*** 0.221*** 0.303***
Namibia –0.064 –0.010 0.035 0.027 0.016
Senegal 0.122* 0.183*** 0.178*** –0.012 0.248***
Swaziland 0.024 0.118 0.121 0.010 0.021
Zambia 0.273*** 0.037 0.029 0.129*** 0.148*
Zimbabwe –0.043 0.001 –0.080 –0.111* –0.019

*P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.a The average partial effects were calculated by computing the partial effects for each observation and then taking the average across the sample.b Regression models with interactions between income quintiles and expenditure levels for inpatient care were also estimated but produced similar results.c Expenditure level 1 is the lowest category of inpatient spending and level 5 is the highest.

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