Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Effects of mutual health organizations on use of priority health-care services in urban and rural Mali: a case–control study

Lynne Miller Franco, François Pathé Diop, Clara R Burgert, Allison Gamble Kelley, Marty Makinen, Cheick Hamed Tidiane Simpara

Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 830-838

Table 4. Characteristics of annual household spending on health in US dollars (US$) among MHO members and the entire community in areas served by MHOs, Mali, 2003–2004

Measure Bla
Sikasso
Overall
MHO member All Bla MHO member All Sikasso Total sample
A. Health expendituresa (mean) 129 108 164 172 134
B. Health expendituresa (median) 46 15 30 23 17
C. Health expenditures out of total cashb (mean %) 6.4 8.9 5.6 6.2 7.8
D. Health expenditures out of total cashb (median %) 3.2 2.6 1.7 1.5 2.1
Ratio of mean health expenditures to median health expenditures (A/B) 2.8 7.2 5.5 7.5 7.9
Ratio of mean health expenditures out of total cashb to median health expenditures out of total cashb (C/D) 2.0 3.4 3.3 4.1 3.7

MHO, mutual health organization.a US$ 1 = 527 CFA francs at the time of the survey in 2004.b Annual cash expenditure is used as the denominator here, rather than total value of consumption (which includes self-produced items), since health expenditures must be made in cash.

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