Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

Eleonora Cavagnero, Christopher Lane, David B Evans, Guy Carrin

Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 864-870

Table 3. Macroeconomic risks and health spending in health-aid dependent countries

Macroeconomic risksb Health spending scale-up (aid and government)a
Yes No
High Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Sudan, Tajikistan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe Angola, Armenia, Benin, Burundi, Ethiopia, Georgia, Myanmar, Rwanda, Swaziland, Zambia
Middle Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Jordan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Yemen
Low Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Trinidad and Tobago Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Niger, Senegal, Togo
Insufficient data Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, Mauritania, Somalia, Timor-Leste

aHealth spending increase defined as a 25% increase in development assistance to health (DAH) constant price US$ during 2002/2003–2004/2005 and an increase in health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio during 2003–2005.bMacroeconomic risks include inflation, volatile aid, low reserves, thin financial markets. High macroeconomic risks defined as inflation above 5% end of 2006, plus at least two other risks (volatile aid, low reserves, undeveloped financial system). Medium macroeconomic risk defined as inflation above 5% at end of 2006, plus at least one other risk; low macroeconomic risk defined as inflation below 5%, plus at least one other risk.

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