Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?
Eleonora Cavagnero, Christopher Lane, David B Evans, Guy Carrin
Volume 86, Number 11, November 2008, 864-870
Table 3. Macroeconomic risks and health spending in health-aid dependent countries
|Macroeconomic risksb||Health spending scale-up (aid and government)a
|High||Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Sudan, Tajikistan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe||Angola, Armenia, Benin, Burundi, Ethiopia, Georgia, Myanmar, Rwanda, Swaziland, Zambia|
|Middle||Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua||Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Jordan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Yemen|
|Low||Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Trinidad and Tobago||Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Niger, Senegal, Togo|
|Insufficient data||Afghanistan, Iraq, Liberia, Mauritania, Somalia, Timor-Leste|
aHealth spending increase defined as a 25% increase in development assistance to health (DAH) constant price US$ during 2002/2003–2004/2005 and an increase in health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio during 2003–2005.bMacroeconomic risks include inflation, volatile aid, low reserves, thin financial markets. High macroeconomic risks defined as inflation above 5% end of 2006, plus at least two other risks (volatile aid, low reserves, undeveloped financial system). Medium macroeconomic risk defined as inflation above 5% at end of 2006, plus at least one other risk; low macroeconomic risk defined as inflation below 5%, plus at least one other risk.