Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Survival, plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and drug resistance in HIV-1-infected Haitian adolescents and young adults on antiretrovirals

Macarthur Charles, Francine Noel, Paul Leger, Patrice Severe, Cynthia Riviere, Carole Anne Beauharnais, Erica Miller, John Rutledge, Heejung Bang, Wesley Shealey, Richard T D’Aquila, Roy M Gulick, Warren D Johnson, Peter F Wright, Jean William Pape & Daniel W Fitzgerald


To assess outcomes after antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adolescents and youth in Haiti, a country with a generalized epidemic of infection with HIV-1.


An assessment was made of survival, plasma HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) concentrations and HIV-1 drug resistance patterns after 12 months of ART in patients aged 13–25 years who presented to a clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, with AIDS between 1 March 2003 and 31 December 2005. Participants received ART in accordance with WHO guidelines. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to estimate survival probabilities and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the period from ART initiation to death.


Of a total of 146 patients, 96 (66%) were female; the median CD4+ T-cell count at baseline was 129 cells/ml. By Kaplan–Meier analysis, 13% of the patients had died at 12 months, 17% at 24 months and 20% at 36 months. A plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration ≥ 50 copies/ml was seen in 40 (51%) of 79 patients 12 months after treatment initiation and was associated with poor ART adherence. Among 29 patients with > 1000 copies/ml at 12 months, resistance mutations to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were detected in 23 cases (79%); to both NNRTIs and lamivudine in 21 (72%) cases; and to NNRTIs, lamivudine and other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 10 (35%) cases. One hundred and six participants (73%) reported sexual intercourse without condoms, and 35 of the 96 women (36%) were pregnant during follow-up.


Adolescents and youth with AIDS receiving ART are at risk of virologic failure and disease progression and can therefore transmit HIV-1 to sexual partners and infants. Strategies to target the special needs of this age group are urgently needed.