Understanding the decline of mean systolic blood pressure in Japan: an analysis of pooled data from the National Nutrition Survey, 1986–2002
Nayu Ikeda, Emmanuela Gakidou, Toshihiko Hasegawa & Christopher JL Murray
Volume 86, Number 12, December 2008, 978-988
Table 2. Age-standardized means of key variables in the adult population over 20 years of age, by sex, based on data from the National Nutrition Survey, Japan, in 1986 and 2002
|1986 (n = 6 612)
||2002 (n = 4 278)
||1986 (n = 7 224)
||2002 (n = 4 897)
|Mean||95% CI||Mean||95% CI||Mean||95% CI||Mean||95% CI|
|Regular exercisea (%)||21.5||20.5–22.6||32.2||30.8–33.6||14.9||14.0–15.7||29.0||27.7–30.3|
|Current smokerb (%)||55.1||53.9–56.4||43.9||42.4–45.4||9.3||8.6–10.0||12.7||11.7–13.7|
|Current drinkerc (%)||49.2||48.0–50.5||48.7||47.2–50.2||7.0||6.4–7.6||12.6||11.6–13.6|
|Daily salt intake (g)||12.1||12.1–12.2||11.8||11.7–11.8||12.1||12.1–12.1||11.7||11.7–11.8|
|Prevalence of hypertension (%)d||43.7||42.5–44.8||42.9||41.6–44.2||38.3||37.4–39.3||35.3||34.1–36.4|
|Hypertensives on treatment (%)d,e,f||29.8||27.8–31.8||39.7||36.9–42.6||36.3||33.5–39.2||48.0||44.3–51.7|
|Hypertensives under control (%)d,e,g||12.4||10.9–14.0||20.5||17.9–23.1||17.5||14.8–20.1||27.2||23.7–30.8|
BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval.
a In the survey, individuals were considered to have regular exercise if they had exercised for more than 30 minutes at a time more than twice a week for over 1 year.
b In the survey, individuals were considered current smokers if they smoked daily or occasionally.
c In the survey, individuals were considered current drinkers if they consumed more than one standard cup of Japanese sake, one large bottle of regular beer, or one double measure of whisky at a time more than three times a week.
d Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or daily use of antihypertensive medication.
e Out of hypertensive population.
f Treatment was defined as daily use of antihypertensive medications.
g Control was defined as SBP < 140 mmHg.