Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database

Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Mitchell G Weiss, Mariann Ring, Urs Hepp, Matthias Bopp, Felix Gutzwiller, Wulf Rössler

Volume 86, Number 9, September 2008, 726-732

Table 1. Suicide by method (% out of all suicides by country) according to the WHO mortality database (as at November 2006); countries reporting ICD-10 data

Countrya Year Men
Women
Other poisoning Pesticides Hanging Drowning Firearms Falls Other N Other poisoning Pesticides Hanging Drowning Firearms Falls Other N
Africa
South Africa (ZA) 1996 & 2004 6.6 3.6 68.7 0.0 12.6 0.2 8.2 412 22.7 12.6 41.2 0.8 9.2 0.8 12.6 119

Americas
Argentina (RA) 1997–2003 0.7 1.7 49.1 1.5 37.6 2.4 7.0 15 214 3.4 4.1 38.0 4.2 25.9 10.3 14.1 4 188
Brazil (BR) 1996–2002 2.0 8.3 52.4 0.9 22.1 1.8 12.6 33 072 6.5 16.0 37.6 2.3 13.4 3.9 20.4 8 591
Canada (CDN) 2000–2003 10.2 0.4 44.4 2.3 21.6 4.7 16.3 11 419 34.3 05 36.8 4.0 3.8 6.5 14.1 3 288
Chile (RCH) 1997–2003 0.6 5.0 77.2 0.9 11.7 0.7 3.9 7 995 7.7 9.8 62.6 2.7 8.0 2.0 7.2 1 342
Colombia (CO) 1997–1999 5.9 20.1 27.7 1.1 37.0 3.1 5.1 4 243 12.5 45.7 17.4 1.2 15.0 4.2 3.9 1 292
Costa Rica (CR) 1997–2004 3.5 29.9 38.4 0.2 24.0 1.6 2.4 1 727 8.9 43.2 30.4 0.4 11.3 3.9 1.9 257
Cuba (CU) 2001–2004 1.7 8.9 76.8 0.6 3.4 2.0 6.6 4 620 11.5 10.3 27.4 1.3 0.7 3.0 45.8 1 649
Dominican Republic (DOM) 1996–2001 2.5 22.4 42.8 2.5 20.2 1.5 8.1 754 7.8 34.9 31.9 3.6 8.4 3.0 10.2 166
Ecuador (EC) 1997–2004 1.6 32.2 41.3 1.6 19.2 0.1 4.0 3 369 2.3 64.3 23.9 0.8 5.3 0.1 3.3 1 542
El Salvador (ES) 1997–2003 0.4 86.2 8.4 0.3 3.8 0.1 0.7 2 446 0.0 95.1 3.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.4 1 102
Mexico (MEX) 1998–2003 0.9 5.3 68.8 0.5 20.5 0.7 3.3 18 283 6.9 21.5 51.3 0.7 13.4 1.5 4.7 3 590
Nicaragua (NIC) 1997–2003 1.8 61.4 25.7 0.6 7.4 0.1 2.9 1 647 7.7 84.6 4.8 0.1 1.7 0.0 1.1 726
Panama (PA) 1998–2003 1.4 18.3 63.5 0.0 11.9 3.2 1.8 816 2.9 46.3 44.1 0.0 2.2 3.7 0.7 136
Paraguay (PY) 1996–2003 0.6 15.4 42.9 1.6 30.4 1.2 7.9 687 2.5 38.5 27.1 1.9 21.5 2.8 5.7 317
Peru (PE) 1999–2000 2.3 54.6 14.1 3.3 11.8 0.3 13.5 304 1.8 83.0 7.3 2.4 1.2 0.0 4.2 165
Puerto Rico (PR) 1999–2002 4.8 1.6 67.6 1.7 17.6 1.5 5.1 993 19.2 6.2 42.3 1.5 6.9 7.7 16.2 130
United States of America (USA) 1999–2002 7.1 0.3 20.4 0.9 60.6 1.9 8.8 97 014 31.0 0.5 16.9 2.1 35.7 3.4 10.5 23 629
Uruguay (ROU) 1997–2001 1.5 1.5 41.1 2.7 47.8 1.1 4.2 2 027 6.8 3.7 27.5 9.1 35.7 7.6 9.5 484
Venezuela (YV) 1996–2002 1.4 13.3 56.6 0.6 23.3 2.2 2.6 7 021 5.2 29.8 44.1 0.5 12.2 4.6 3.7 1 395

Asia
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (HK) 2001–2004 1.6 1.1 22.6 2.0 0.3 43.3 29.1 2 866 3.5 2.4 18.9 4.5 0.1 47.5 23.1 1 556
Israel (IL) 1998–2003 2.5 1.9 42.0 0.7 25.4 10.3 17.2 1 511 8.9 2.9 31.1 2.1 9.1 21.9 24.0 383
Japan (J) 1995–2004 1.3 2.5 68.7 2.6 0.2 8.1 16.5 199 505 2.9 4.3 59.9 7.8 0.0 12.5 12.7 82 646
Kuwait (KWT) 1995–2001 0.5 4.7 91.7 0.0 0.5 0.5 2.1 193 0.0 7.3 90.6 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 96
Republic of Korea (ROK) 1995–2004 0.4 37.5 39.2 3.2 0.4 9.5 9.8 53 449 0.8 42.8 26.0 3.8 0.1 18.5 8.1 23 392
Thailand (T) 1994–2002 6.3 16.4 51.7 0.1 6.1 0.1 19.3 27 015 11.3 28.3 41.8 0.1 1.9 0.2 16.4 8 669

Australia & New Zealand
Australia (AUS) 1998–2003 8.0 1.1 45.4 1.3 11.5 3.6 29.1 11 422 26.5 0.7 36.4 3.9 2.6 4.6 25.3 3 017
New Zealand (NZ) 2000–2003 6.4 1.0 48.4 1.9 11.2 2.5 28.6 1 493 19.7 0.4 42.5 4.4 2.2 6.4 24.3 456

Europe
Austria (A) 2002–2005 5.6 0.3 48.1 3.3 20.7 8.9 13.1 4 373 17.7 0.6 35.2 10.7 2.6 18.1 15.1 1 444
Croatia (HR) 1995–2004 2.3 1.5 53.3 3.8 25.4 4.0 9.8 6 892 7.2 5.4 47.9 13.8 4.5 8.3 12.9 2 426
Czech Republic (CZ) 1994–2004 5.0 0.6 63.8 1.0 12.4 6.5 10.8 14 154 18.2 1.3 44.8 4.8 2.6 15.7 12.5 4 016
Denmark (DK) 1994–2001 13.7 0.7 40.7 4.8 14.5 5.1 20.5 4 645 36.9 0.7 29.6 13.2 0.8 7.9 10.7 1961
Estonia (EST) 1997–2005 1.5 0.2 79.7 0.5 9.1 3.3 5.7 2 874 9.1 1.9 70.4 2.2 1.3 10.7 4.3 689
Finland (FIN) 1996–2004 17.6 0.2 33.1 3.5 26.7 4.2 14.6 8 168 49.5 0.2 20.3 10.6 2.6 6.6 10.2 2 425
France (F) 2000–2003 8.6 1.0 48.9 3.9 22.1 4.9 10.6 31 378 26.3 2.0 29.2 12.4 4.1 12.4 13.5 11 387
Georgia (GE) 1998–2001 4.3 3.6 53.2 0.9 3.2 1.6 33.2 440 4.7 3.9 50.8 0.8 0.8 4.7 34.4 128
Germany (D) 1998–2004 8.0 1.3 55.5 2.1 10.3 7.4 15.5 57 202 22.0 2.0 38.9 7.2 1.4 14.1 14.4 20 870
Hungary (H) 1996–2003 7.0 4.6 70.3 1.4 4.0 4.9 7.8 19 030 28.1 7.0 43.4 4.5 0.6 9.9 6.5 6 089
Iceland (IS) 1997–2004 9.3 0.0 39.0 5.5 19.5 5.1 21.6 236 31.8 1.5 27.3 18.2 0.0 4.5 16.7 66
Latvia (LV) 1996–2004 0.9 1.0 85.1 0.6 6.5 2.3 3.6 5 367 6.2 4.1 72.6 3.9 0.9 7.8 4.5 1 359
Lithuania (LT) 1998–2004 1.1 0.4 91.7 0.3 2.7 1.3 2.4 8 778 6.3 1.6 83.1 2.2 0.3 4.4 2.1 1 881
Luxembourg (L) 1998–2004 8.1 1.1 38.2 2.8 14.6 18.5 16.6 356 29.6 1.6 15.2 7.2 3.2 28.8 14.4 125
Malta (M) 1995–2004 6.8 1.4 41.8 4.1 15.8 21.9 8.2 146 13.7 2.0 15.7 7.8 0.0 56.9 3.9 51
Moldova (MD) 1996–2004 0.9 7.0 80.3 2.0 2.4 2.6 4.8 4 596 5.0 18.0 55.7 9.1 0.5 5.4 6.2 933
Netherlands (NL) 1996–2004 11.7 1.4 47.9 6.6 4.4 7.8 20.2 9 211 24.0 1.8 33.6 11.0 0.6 10.7 18.3 4 526
Norway (N) 1996–2004 11.1 0.2 37.9 4.6 27.1 4.7 14.3 3 519 33.3 0.5 32.3 13.5 2.0 7.1 11.3 1 272
Poland (PL) 1999–2004 1.8 0.3 91.2 0.5 1.1 2.1 3.1 29 808 7.9 0.8 77.6 3.0 0.2 6.5 4.0 5 495
Portugal (P) 2002–2003 2.4 14.0 52.2 4.3 11.1 6.0 10.0 1 835 9.2 23.5 31.2 11.6 3.2 10.3 10.9 532
Romania (RO) 1999–2004 3.0 3.1 87.3 0.3 1.0 1.4 3.8 14 039 7.9 9.1 74.1 1.1 0.1 2.4 5.2 2 934
Serbia (SRB) 1997–2002 1.6 2.9 57.6 3.3 20.1 2.3 12.2 6 939 4.2 9.8 57.2 7.9 5.2 4.0 11.7 3 003
Slovakia (SK) 1994–2002 3.2 1.7 70.0 0.8 12.3 5.0 7.0 5 248 17.0 2.8 50.2 2.8 2.9 17.2 7.0 983
Slovenia (SLO) 1997–2004 2.5 1.8 64.7 2.5 11.8 3.6 13.1 3 538 8.6 3.1 53.1 12.2 1.2 9.0 12.8 1 040
Spain (E) 1999–2004 3.5 2.6 52.7 3.9 7.1 18.4 11.8 15 269 8.3 5.4 29.4 7.6 0.9 36.9 11.5 4 887
Sweden (S) 1997–2002 16.0 0.3 39.4 5.3 17.1 4.4 17.6 5 094 42.9 0.1 25.12 12.4 0.9 7.2 11.3 2 060
Switzerland (CH) 2000–2004 13.3 0.6 27.3 3.0 33.5 9.2 13.2 4 635 37.8 0.7 19.1 10.1 3.4 14.7 13.9 2 111
United Kingdom (GB) 2001–2004 14.7 0.4 55.2 2.4 3.5 2.9 20.8 12 573 41.1 0.3 35.9 4.7 0.6 3.7 13.9 3 832

ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision.a Source of country abbreviations except HK and PR: http://www.unece.org/trans/conventn/Distsigns.pdf

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