Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases

Brenda Waning, Warren Kaplan, Alexis C King, Danielle A Lawrence, Hubert G Leufkens & Matthew P Fox

Volume 87, Number 7, July 2009, 520-528

Table 1. Number and total value of individual ARV purchases between July 2002 and October 2007

Antiretroviral Total number of purchases Total value of all purchases (US$)a Volume of ARV doses purchasedb
Low Medium High
(lowest third) (middle third) (highest third)
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Abacavir 300 mg 247 9 612 930 300–6 120 6 240–37 140 39 000–781 200
Didanosine 100 mg 172 1 854 615 60–3 600 3 720–29 880 30 000–324 480
Didanosine 200 mg 115 1 693 087 240–3 960 4 020–27 000 28 680–343 260
Didanosine 400 mg 126 4 648 567 90–2 310 2 400–15 390 15 540–332 340
Lamivudine 150 mg 580 15 911 293 120–28 080 28 320–179 160 180 000–5 904 000
Stavudine 20 mg 113 461 819 56–10 800 12 000–48 600 51 600–840 000
Stavudine 30 mg 389 4 018 395 60–11 880 12 000–120 000 121 440–5 790 000
Stavudine 40 mg 382 5 745 885 120–9 600 9 900–94 696 95 200–4 373 100
Stavudine 30 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 257 43 916 698 240–6 900 7 200–48 000 51 000–401 346 960
Stavudine 40 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 206 1 389 119 27–4 020 4 080–24 120 24 180–1 500 000
Tenofovir 300 mg 137 8 800 097 89–9 000 10 140–45 600 45 900–1 440 000
Zidovudine 100 mg 232 2 734 390 200–7 400 7 500–42 800 43 200–3 550 000
Zidovudine 300 mg 311 6 016 544 120–11 580 12 000–47 280 48 000–1 600 020
Zidovudine 300 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 691 79 642 912 120–30 000 32 040–230 040 231 000–137 648 400
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Efavirenz 50 mg 170 801 118 90–5 400 5 700–31 500 34 500–454 500
Efavirenz 200 mg 350 13 661 610 90–9 000 9 270–45 630 45 720–2 563 200
Efavirenz 600 mg 616 73 531 130 60–12 990 13 020–110 970 112 440–6 693 480
Nevirapine 200 mg 727 32 204 756 60–19 020 19 500–120 000 120 120–12 534 000
Fixed-dose combination of NRTIs and an NNRTI
Stavudine 30 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg plus nevirapine 200 mg 392 145 267 223 420–25 620 27 000–262 200 282 000–486 404 460
Stavudine 40 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg plus nevirapine 200 mg 335 17 617 177 360–18 960 19 080–92 520 92 760–3 957 093
Protease inhibitors
Indinavir 400 mg 164 7 573 719 540–27 000 27 900–112 680 115 200–1 602 000
Lopinavir 133.3 mg plus ritonavir 33.3 mg 217 18 281 938 138–19 440 21 600–88 200 90 000–2 640 780
Nelfinavir 250 mg 214 21 941 575 540–33 750 34 290–167 400 175 500–4 185 000
Ritonavir 100 mg 110 1 908 638 336–6 720 7 140–45 360 47 040–360 024

ARV, antiretroviral; US$, United States dollar.
a Value before adjustment based on the United States annual consumer price index.
b The purchase volume was categorized as low, medium or high using thirds for the specific purchase volume distribution for each ARV dosage form.

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