Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Global strategies to reduce the price of antiretroviral medicines: evidence from transactional databases

Brenda Waning, Warren Kaplan, Alexis C King, Danielle A Lawrence, Hubert G Leufkens & Matthew P Fox

Volume 87, Number 7, July 2009, 520-528

Table 2. Effect of purchase volume, divided into thirds, on the price of individual ARVs as determined by regression analysis. The median unadjusted annual price per person of individual products during July 2006–June 2007 is shown for reference

Antiretroviral Median unadjusted annual price per persona
Price difference from regression analysisb (%)
High-volume purchases (US$) Medium-volume purchases (US$) Low-volume purchases (US$) High-volume vsmedium-volume purchases High-volume vslow-volume purchases
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Abacavir 300 mg 438 453 540 3 –1
Didanosine 100 mgc 115 115 88 4 –2
Didanosine 200 mg 314 241 226 4 –3
Didanosine 400 mg 303 434 288 –12 –4
Lamivudine 150 mg 51 51 58 2 –2
Stavudine 20 mgc 15 15 33 –2 –2
Stavudine 30 mg 29 29 37 6 –5
Stavudine 40 mg 37 37 37 4 12
Stavudine 30 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 66 73 66 0.7 5
Stavudine 40 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 80 73 66 –2 6
Tenofovir 300 mg 208 208 226 7 –7
Zidovudine 100 mgc 51 55 58 3 3
Zidovudine 300 mg 124 117 146 –4 –5
Zidovudine 300 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg 139 168 139 –1 –7
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Efavirenz 50 mgc 161 161 161 1 3
Efavirenz 200 mgc 111 131 77 –7 –6
Efavirenz 600 mg 234 245 245 –4 –7
Nevirapine 200 mg 58 55 58 –3 –3
Fixed-dose combination of NRTIs and an NNRTI
Stavudine 30 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg plus nevirapine 200 mg 95 102 102 –5 –5
Stavudine 40 mg plus lamivudine 150 mg plus nevirapine 200 mg 131 102 102 –11 –16
Protease inhibitors
Indinavir 400 mg 394 511 496 –6 –7
Lopinavir 133.3 mg plus ritonavir 33.3 mg 920 1007 591 –13 –21
Nelfinavir 250 mg 1059 1113 1059 –4 3
Ritonavir 100 mg 80 88 91 –8 6

ARV, antiretroviral; US$, United States dollar.
a Median price per person per year during July 2006–June 2007.
b Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) are shown in boldface type.
c Paediatric dose for children weighing 10 kg.

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