Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India
Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, Katherine L Dickinson, Christine Poulos, Sumeet R Patil, Ranjan K Mallick, Jonathan L Blitstein & Purujit Praharaj
Volume 87, Number 8, August 2009, 580-587
Table 1. Household characteristics in 20 treatment and 20 control villages before an IEC sanitation campaign in Bhadrak, Orissa, India, 2005–2006
|Household characteristic||Treatment (n = 534)
||Control (n = 552)
|With individual household latrine||6||12.7||0.030|
|With female respondent||93||94||0.810|
|From open/general casteb||36||44||0.227|
|From scheduled casteb||28||26||0.858|
|From other backward classesb||29||24||0.449|
|Below poverty linec||60||61||0.910|
|Used improved water sourced||37||42||0.602|
|Used pots to store water||55||49||0.335|
|Used buckets or vessels to store water||69||74||0.454|
|Boiled or treated drinking water||9||13||0.192|
|Adults washed hands before preparing food, eating and feeding children and after handling child’s faeces and defecating||11||9||0.564|
|Children washed hands before eating and after defecating||47||50||0.549|
|Reported case of adult diarrhoea in past 2 weeks (treatment, 2007; control, 2110)||9||8||0.905|
|Reported case of child diarrhoea in past 2 weeks (treatment, 797; control, 775)||28||23||0.218|
|Dumped garbage outside of house||68||69||0.794|
|Threw wastewater in the backyard||46||48||0.705|
|Attended village council (gram sabha) meeting||34||38||0.540|
|Helped sweep streets||5||4||0.761|
|Helped clean water sources||4||4||0.751|
|Helped clean drains||4||4||0.757|
IEC, information, education and communication.
a Statistical tests were used to assess the difference between intervention and control villages; standard errors were corrected for clustering at the village level.
b The Government of India uses social, educational and economic criteria to identify socially marginal groups (officially categorized into scheduled castes and other backward castes) that qualify for welfare programmes, notably employment quotas. People from other castes that are not in these categories (e.g. open castes) are not eligible for welfare programmes.
c The poverty line is defined by a monthly per capita consumption expenditure of 356 rupees.
d According to WHO, improved water sources are defined as household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collections.