Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India

Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, Katherine L Dickinson, Christine Poulos, Sumeet R Patil, Ranjan K Mallick, Jonathan L Blitstein & Purujit Praharaj

Volume 87, Number 8, August 2009, 580-587

Table 1. Household characteristics in 20 treatment and 20 control villages before an IEC sanitation campaign in Bhadrak, Orissa, India, 2005–2006

Household characteristic Treatment (n = 534)
Control (n = 552)
P-valuea
% %
With individual household latrine 6 12.7 0.030
With female respondent 93 94 0.810
From open/general casteb 36 44 0.227
From scheduled casteb 28 26 0.858
From other backward classesb 29 24 0.449
Below poverty linec 60 61 0.910
Used improved water sourced 37 42 0.602
Used pots to store water 55 49 0.335
Used buckets or vessels to store water 69 74 0.454
Boiled or treated drinking water 9 13 0.192
Adults washed hands before preparing food, eating and feeding children and after handling child’s faeces and defecating 11 9 0.564
Children washed hands before eating and after defecating 47 50 0.549
Reported case of adult diarrhoea in past 2 weeks (treatment, 2007; control, 2110) 9 8 0.905
Reported case of child diarrhoea in past 2 weeks (treatment, 797; control, 775) 28 23 0.218
Dumped garbage outside of house 68 69 0.794
Threw wastewater in the backyard 46 48 0.705
Attended village council (gram sabha) meeting 34 38 0.540
Helped sweep streets 5 4 0.761
Helped clean water sources 4 4 0.751
Helped clean drains 4 4 0.757

IEC, information, education and communication.
a Statistical tests were used to assess the difference between intervention and control villages; standard errors were corrected for clustering at the village level.
b The Government of India uses social, educational and economic criteria to identify socially marginal groups (officially categorized into scheduled castes and other backward castes) that qualify for welfare programmes, notably employment quotas. People from other castes that are not in these categories (e.g. open castes) are not eligible for welfare programmes.
c The poverty line is defined by a monthly per capita consumption expenditure of 356 rupees.
d According to WHO, improved water sources are defined as household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collections.

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