Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India

Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, Katherine L Dickinson, Christine Poulos, Sumeet R Patil, Ranjan K Mallick, Jonathan L Blitstein & Purujit Praharaj

Volume 87, Number 8, August 2009, 580-587

Table 4. DID estimates of the effect of an IEC sanitation campaign on potential household latrine ownership in Bhadrak, Orissa, India, 2005–2006

Model 3a Model 4b
A: Full sample
No. of households/clusters 2100/20 2100/20
IEC effect (%) 37.5 46.1
95% CIc 23.8–51.3 31.1–61.1
P-value 0.000 0.000
B: BPL only
No. of households/clusters 1264/20 1264/20
IEC effect (%) 43.1 51.5
95% CIc 28.4–57.8 36.9–66.1
P-value 0.000 0.000
C: Non-BPL only
No. of households/clusters 836/20 836/20
IEC effect (%) 29.3 38.2
95% CIc 13.8–44.8 20.0–56.4
P-value 0.000 0.000

BPL, below the poverty line; CI, confidence interval; DID, difference-in-difference; IEC, information, education and communication.
a DID adding households that reported having started to build an individual household latrine at the time of the second survey.
b DID adding households that reported plans to build an individual household latrine within the next year.
c Standard errors were corrected for clustering at the village level.

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