Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India

Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, Katherine L Dickinson, Christine Poulos, Sumeet R Patil, Ranjan K Mallick, Jonathan L Blitstein & Purujit Praharaj

Volume 87, Number 8, August 2009, 580-587

Table 5. DID estimates of the effect of an IEC sanitation campaign on latrine use among men, women and children in households in Bhadrak, Orissa, India, 2005–2006

Dependent variable: latrine use during the day and at night Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
N 2100 2100 2100
IEC effect (%) 25.6 23.2 11.3
95% CId 13.5–37.8 11.3–35.1 3.4–19.2
P-value 0.000 0.000 0.001

CI, confidence interval; DID, difference-in-difference; IEC, information, education and communication.
a DID for men.
b DID for women.
c DID for children.
d Standard errors were corrected for clustering at the village level.

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