Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974–2007

Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Maria Helena D’Aquino Benicio, Wolney Lisboa Conde, Silvia Konno, Ana Lucia Lovadino, Aluisio JD Barros & Cesar Gomes Victora

Volume 88, Number 4, April 2010, 305-311

Table 3. Maternal schooling, prenatal care, access to water and sanitation services and reproductive health indicators, per survey year and socioeconomic quintile, Brazil, 1996–2007

Indicator Surveya year Indicator (%) per quintile
P-valueb
Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest
Maternal schooling ≥ 8 years 1996 5.6 13.2 24.7 44.7 73.5 0.000
2006–07 29.4 44.5 62.2 71.5 92.5
Four or more prenatal visits 1996 37.5 60.9 79.8 89.0 93.7 0.000
2006–07 80.0 87.6 88.9 94.9 97.7
Household served by public water supply 1996 39.9 70.1 80.4 82.2 80.9 0.238
2006–07 65.3 74.6 81.1 85.2 89.2
Household served by public sewage system 1996 2.4 17.9 33.6 44.6 60.0 0.000
2006–07 22.5 33.7 41.1 52.6 69.2
Household with flush toilet 1996 14.0 83.9 98.5 99.6 100.0 0.001
2006–07 67.0 96.5 99.5 100.0 100.0
Birth order < 5th 1996 69.5 80.8 91.3 95.3 98.4 0.004
2006–07 91.3 94.8 96.6 97.7 99.7
Birth interval ≥ 24 months 1996 69.2 75.1 83.6 88.7 91.3 0.787
2006–07 82.5 90.0 90.1 96.1 93.5
Modern contraceptive usec 1996 51.1 65.2 76.6 79.0 79.6 0.000
2006–07 93.9 98.4 94.9 96.2 93.7


a Demographic and Health Survey.
b For the interaction between survey year and quintile.
c Among women aged 15–49 years.

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