How valuable are environmental health interventions? Evaluation of water and sanitation programmes in India
Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Christine Poulos, Jui-Chen Yang & Sumeet Patil
Volume 88, Number 7, July 2010, 535-542
Table 3. Estimated effects of a community demand-directed water, sanitation and hygiene programme on coping costsa and cost of illnessa in the dry and rainy seasons, Maharasthra, India, 2005 and 2007
|Total monthly household coping costs||−6.98**||−0.37|
|Time costs for water||−4.84*||0.40|
|Time costs for sanitation||−1.64***||−1.42**|
|Costs of boiling||0.36||−0.21|
|Total household COI||1.25||0.11|
|Out-of-pocket medical expenses||1.88||−0.23|
|Patients' lost income||−0.52||0.15|
|Caregivers' lost income||−0.11||0.19|
COI, cost of illness; DID, difference-in-difference. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.
a All coping cost and COI values are adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP) and inflated to 2007 United States dollars (US$).20–22 In 2007, the PPP exchange rate was 15.139 Indian rupees for US$ 1.
b DID estimation includes covariates unbalanced at baseline (household knowledge of public health messages regarding handwashing and safe handling and storage of food and water; household belief that having a water supply is a public policy priority; household belief that sanitation is a public health priority; and household participation in the village water and sanitation committee). Standard errors were corrected for clustering at the village level.