How valuable are environmental health interventions? Evaluation of water and sanitation programmes in India
Subhrendu K Pattanayak, Christine Poulos, Jui-Chen Yang & Sumeet Patil
Volume 88, Number 7, July 2010, 535-542
Table 4. Estimated effects of a community demand-directed water, sanitation and hygiene programme on coping costsa and cost of illnessa in the dry and rainy seasons, by subgroup, in Maharasthra, India, 2005 and 2007
|Dry season (May–June)|
|Total monthly household coping costs||−6.98**||−6.24*||−6.52*||−9.64***||−6.21*|
|Total household cost of illness||1.25||−4.85||7.02||−6.71*||4.96|
|Rainy season (August–September)|
|Total monthly household coping costs||−0.37||−0.79||−1.57||−6.52||1.96|
|Total household cost of illness||0.11||2.27||−0.92||−0.14||0.28|
APL, above poverty line; BPL, below poverty line; DID, difference-in-difference; SCST, scheduled caste and scheduled tribe. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.
a All coping cost and cost of illness values are adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP) and inflated to 2007 United States dollars (US$).20–22 In 2007, the PPP exchange rate was 15.139 Indian rupees for US$ 1.
b DID estimation includes covariates unbalanced at baseline (household knowledge of public health messages regarding handwashing and safe handling and storage of food and water; household belief that having a water supply is a public policy priority; household belief that sanitation is a public health priority; and household participation in the village water and sanitation committee). Standard errors were corrected for clustering at village level.