Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the importance of the choice of indicator for undernutrition

Chessa K Lutter, Camila M Chaparro & Sergio Muñoz

Volume 89, Number 1, January 2011, 22-30

Table 1. Trends in the prevalence of underweight and stunting in 13 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, by survey year (1966–2008)

Country Year na Prevalence
Survey interval Average yearly change in prevalence
Underweight
Stunting
Underweight
Stunting
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) PP PP
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 1989 2 681 9.0 (7.7 to 10.4) 42.1 (39.7 to 44.4)
1994 3 008 12.6 (11.3 to 13.9)b 34.6 (32.7 to 36.4)b 1989–94 0.88 −1.50
1998 6 420 6.0 (5.4 to 6.7)b 33.5 (32.2 to 34.8) 1994–98 −1.64 −0.27
2003 9 925 6.0 (5.4 to 6.7) 32.6 (31.5 to 33.8) 1998–03 0.00 −0.17
2008c 8 422 4.1 (4.3 to 4.3)b 26.8 (26.8 to 27.4)b 2003–08 −0.38 −1.17
Overall −0.26 −0.80
Brazild 1989 1 190 10.0 (8.2 to 11.7) 19.9 (17.8–21.9)
1996 4 364 4.7 (4.0 to 5.4)b 13.5 (12.1–14.8)b 1989–96 −0.76 −0.99
2007 4 034 2.2 (NA) 6.8 (5.4 to 8.3)b 1996–06 −0.23 −0.57
Overall −0.39 −0.66
Colombia 1986 1 335 8.7 (7.0 to 10.2) 26.1 (23.7 to 28.6)
1995 4 561 6.5 (5.7 to 7.2)b 19.9 (18.7 to 21.1)b 1986–95 −0.24 −0.69
2000 4 239 5.0 (4.3 to 5.7)b 18.3 (17.1 to 19.6)b 1995–00 −0.30 −0.31
2005 14 007 5.2 (4.7 to 5.6) 16.3 (15.5 to 17.0)b 2000–05 0.04 −0.41
Overall −0.18 −0.52
Costa Rica 1982e 1 831 4.3 (NA) 8.5 (NA)
1996e 662 2.1 (NA) 7.6 (NA) 1982–96 −0.16 −0.06
2008–09 351 1.1 (NA) 5.6 (NA) 1996–08 −0.08 −0.17
Overall −0.12 −0.11
Dominican Republic 1986 1 972 9.2 (7.8 to 10.6) 22.3 (20.3 to 24.4)
1991 3 284 8.5 (7.3 to 9.8) 21.3 (19.5 to 23.2)b 1986–91 −0.14 −0.20
1996 3 841 4.8 (4.0 to 5.4)b 13.7 (12.5 to 15.0)b 1991–96 −0.75 −1.53
2002 11 170 4.2 (3.8 to 4.8) 11.8 (11.0 to 12.6) 1996–02 −0.08 −0.32
2007f 10 522 3.1 (NA) 9.8 (NA) 2002–07 −0.24 −0.40
Overall −0.29 −0.60
El Salvador 1966e 635 22.4 (NA) 56.7 (NA)
1988e 1 993 11.1 (NA) 36.6 (NA) 1966–88 −0.51 −0.91
1993 3 518 7.0 (6.0 to 7.9) 26.2 (24.6 to 27.8) 1988–93 −0.83 −2.07
1998 6 590 8.7 (7.8 to 9.5)b 29.5 (28.1 to 30.9)b 1993–98 0.34 0.65
2003 5 294 5.5 (4.6 to 6.3)b 20.8 (19.2 to 22.3)b 1998–03 −0.63 −1.74
2008b 5 173 5.6 (NA) 19.2 (NA) 2008–03 0.02 −0.31
Overall −0.40 −0.89
Guatemala 1966e 828 28.4 (NA) 63.5 (NA)
1987 2 250 27.9 (26.0 to 29.7) 62.4 (60.4 to 64.4) 1966–87 −0.03 −0.05
1995 8 792 22.0 (20.9 to 23.0)b 55.5 (54.1 to 56.9)b 1987–95 −0.73 −0.86
1999 4 055 20.5 (18.6 to 22.3) 53.4 (51.0 to 55.8)b 1995–99 −0.38 −0.53
2002 6 505 18.0 (16.9 to 19.2) 54.5 (52.8 to 56.2) 1999–02 −0.82 0.36
Overall −0.29 −0.25
Haiti 1995 2 874 24.2 (22.6 to 25.8) 37.5 (35.7 to 39.3)
2000 6 502 14.1 (12.8 to 15.3)b 28.9 (27.0 to 30.8)b 1995–00 −2.03 −1.71
2005 2 987 15.3 (17.4 to 20.9)g 30.1 (28.1 to 32.2) 2000–05 1.03 0.24
Overall −0.50 −0.74
Honduras 1966e 573 24.9 (NA) 51.4 (NA)
1987e 6 147 14.8 (NA) 42.7 (NA) 1966–87 −0.72 −0.62
2001 5 664 12.6 (11.6 to 13.5) 34.6 (33.2 to 35.9) 1987–01 −0.16 −0.58
2005 10 320 8.7 (8.1 to 9.3)b 30.1 (29.2 to 31.1)b 2001–05 −0.97 −1.10
Overall −0.41 0.54
Mexico 1988h 6 937 10.8 (NA) 26.9 (NA)
1999h 7 590 5.6 (NA) 21.5 (NA) 1988–99 −0.47 −0.49
2006h 7 707 3.4 (15.4 to 15.7) 15.5 (3.4 to 3.5) 1999–06 −0.31 −0.86
Overall −0.41 −0.63
Nicaragua 1966e 573 24.9 (NA) 51.4 (NA)
1993 3 609 9.6 (NA) 29.3 (NA) 1966–93 −0.57 −0.82
1998 7 200 10.4 (9.6 to 11.2) 30.7 (29.5 to 31.9) 1993–98 0.16 −0.28
2001 6 138 7.8 (7.1 to 8.6)b 25.4 (24.1 to 26.6)b 1998–01 −0.86 −1.78
2006i 6 535 5.5 (NA) 21.7 (NA) 2001–06 −0.47 −1.22
Overall −0.49 −0.74
Panama 1966e 600 9.6 (NA) 29.4 (NA)
1997e 2 282 5.0 (NA) 16.8 (NA) 1966–97 −0.15 −0.41
2003e 2 893 5.3 (NA) 23.7 (NA) 1997–03 0.05 1.15
Overall −0.12 −0.15
Peru 1992 7 874 8.9 (8.3 to 9.6) 37.8 (36.6 to 38.9)
1996 15 354 5.8 (5.4 to 6.2)b 31.9 (30.1 to 32.8)b 1992–96 −0.78 −1.47
2000c 11 884 5.2 (4.8 to 5.7) 31.6 (30.6 to 32.6) 1996–00 −0.09 −0.04
2004–08j 2 347 5.6 (4.5 to 6.7) 29.8 (27.6 to 32.1) 2000–05 0.08 −0.36
Overall −0.25 −0.61

CI, confidence interval; NA, not available; PP, percentage points.

Unless otherwise indicated data estimates are from analyses of DHS or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveys.

a Number of observations for weight-for-age calculations (represents maximum sample size) for children 0–60 months of age.

b Significantly lower than in previous survey (95% CIs do not overlap).

c Data from reference.18

d Data on underweight from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition (http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/database/en/) [accessed 12 May 2009]. Data on stunting from reference.19

e Data from reference.20

f Data from reference.17

g Significantly higher than in previous survey (95% CIs do not overlap).

h Data from reference.22 Represents data for children 6–60 months of age.

i Data from reference.23

j For regional estimates only, data are from the 2005, 2007 and first-trimester amplified survey of 2008 (n = 9047 for weight and n = 8969 for height).

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