Bulletin of the World Health Organization

United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa

Eran Bendavid, Patrick Avila & Grant Miller

Volume 89, Number 12, December 2011, 873-880C

Table 1. Induced abortions in 20 sub-Saharan African countries and exposure to the Mexico City Policy, 1994–2008

Country 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year of DHS Exposure to Mexico City Policya
Benin 2006 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 1 1 1 1 3 5 NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 473 6 224 9 213 10 393 11 401 11 447 11 320 NA NA
Burkina Faso 2003 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA 0 0 2 2 2 1 1 NA NA NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA 1 922 4 421 6 495 7 246 7 840 7 840 7 709 NA NA NA NA NA
Ethiopia 2005 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA 6 9 17 18 19 23 11 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA 10 200 10 879 11 302 11 929 12 355 12 716 12 901 NA NA NA
Ghana 2003, 2008 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA 0 0 1 4 3 3 5 7 6 12 21 23
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA 738 1 668 2 411 2 776 3 086 3 110 6 942 4 012 4 161 4 287 4 383 4 446
Guinea 2005 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA 2 179 3 164 3 929 4 426 4 800 4 799 4 745 NA NA NA
Kenya 1998, 2003, 2008 Low
Abortions, no. 7 13 13 15 10 15 16 19 25 16 5 7 7 26 43
Observation period, woman–years 6 433 6 701 6 930 7 193 13 755 6 790 7 058 7 321 7 525 14 169 6 827 7 066 7 279 7 536 7 695
Madagascar 2003–2004, 2008 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA 1 1 2 2 2 10 21 22 32 46 53
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA 2 487 3 103 3 641 4 146 4 318 17 470 16 489 14 192 14 739 15 304 15 756
Malawi 2000, 2005 High
Abortions, no. 1 1 1 7 7 21 14 14 17 24 59 0 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years 1 640 4 262 6 453 7 529 8 448 17 769 18 118 10 001 10 293 10 586 10 848 2 639 NA NA NA
Mali 2001, 2006 High
Abortions, no. 0 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 2 3 1 3 1 NA NA
Observation period, woman–years 1 229 3 075 6 125 7 443 8 290 9 181 10 967 14 207 7 740 8 716 9 496 9 567 9 528 NA NA
Mozambique 2003–2004 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA 0 1 1 1 2 6 5 0 NA NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA 1 442 3 828 5 870 6 786 7 613 7 767 7 750 73 NA NA NA NA
Niger 2006 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 939 4 279 5 215 5 807 6 137 6 098 6 050 NA NA
Nigeria 2008 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 9 21 31 50 48 35
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 26 808 27 317 28 276 29 052 29 850 30 347
Rwanda 2000, 2005 Low
Abortions, no. 0 1 1 7 7 9 5 6 4 7 10 12 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years 1 282 3 143 4 454 4 905 6 126 7 043 9 124 4 859 5 342 5 635 5 572 5 477 NA NA NA
Senegal 2005 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA 1 1 1 4 2 3 2 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA 3 510 5 047 6 395 7 222 7 775 7 767 7 685 NA NA NA
Sierra Leone 2008 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 2 1 6 12 5
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 174 6 335 6 585 6 705 6 828 6 819
Swaziland 2006–2007 Low
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 1 1 2 5 14 0 NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 720 3 918 4 086 4 260 4 416 4 566 1 074 NA
Uganda 2000–2001, 2006 Low
Abortions, no. 0 0 1 3 9 16 12 9 12 14 30 36 29 NA NA
Observation period, woman–years 652 2 165 3 546 4 110 4 528 4 652 4 628 8 997 6 839 7 125 7 342 7 624 7 886 NA NA
United Republic of Tanzania 2004–5 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA 8 19 13 27 43 74 3 NA NA NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA 7 978 8 253 8 608 8 889 9 255 9 450 2 959 NA NA NA
Zambia 2007 High
Abortions, no. NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 9 9 18 21 14 NA
Observation period, woman–years NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 603 5 817 6 035 6 222 6 482 6 624 NA
Zimbabwe 1994,b 1999, 2005–2006 Low
Abortions, no. 15 14 11 21 20 31 10 18 18 19 34 23 6 NA NA
Observation period, woman–years 10 119 4 657 4 878 5 098 5 340 5 476 6 778 7 094 7 433 768 8 011 8 226 1 906 NA NA

DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; NA, not available.

a Exposure to the Mexico City Policy was classified as high or low according to whether the level of per capita financial assistance provided to the country for family planning and reproductive health by the United States was above or below the median for the period 1995 to 2000. Data on financial assistance were obtained from the Creditor Reporting System of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

b Only data for 1994 from this survey were used in the primary analysis.