Giving birth at a health-care facility in rural China: is it affordable for the poor?
Qian Long, Yaoguang Zhang, Joanna Raven, Zhuochun Wu, Lennart Bogg, Shenglan Tang & Elina Hemminki
Volume 89, Number 2, February 2011, 144-152
Table 2. Percentage change (PC) and absolute change in percentage (ACP) between 2002 and 2007 in total and out-of-pocket expenditurea on delivery at a health-care facility in rural China, by household income groupb
|Parameter||2002 household income group (n = 900)
||2007 household income group (n = 1 333)
|Low (n = 308)||Medium (n = 295)||High (n = 297)||Low (n = 445)
||Medium (n = 470)
||High (n = 418)
|Mean annual household income||594||1167||2508||1186||+100||NA||2359||+102||NA||4812||+92||NA|
|All facility-based deliveries|
|Mean total expenditure per delivery||108||126||158||199||+84||NA||255||+102||NA||317||+100||NA|
|Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery||108||126||158||155||+43||NA||212||+69||NA||271||+71||NA|
|Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income||18.2c||10.8c||6.3c||13.1c||NA||−5.1||9.0c||NA||−1.8||5.6c||NA||−0.7|
|Mean total expenditure per delivery||41||63||83||116||+184||NA||146||+132||NA||183||+120||NA|
|Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery||41||63||83||88||+115||NA||120||+91||NA||157||+89||NA|
|Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income||6.9c||5.4 c||3.3 c||7.4c||NA||+0.5||5.1c||NA||−0.3||3.3c||NA||0|
|Mean total expenditure per delivery||303||311||344||460||+52||NA||496||+60||NA||562||+63||NA|
|Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery||303||311||344||377||+24||NA||423||+36||NA||480||+40||NA|
|Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income||51.0c||26.6c||13.7c||31.8c||NA||−19.2||17.9c||NA||−8.7||10.0c||NA||−3.7|
NA, not applicable; US$, United States dollar.
a Expenditure was adjusted for inflation.
b Households were divided into three groups of equal size according to income: low, medium and high.
c Percentages.[an error occurred while processing this directive]