Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Giving birth at a health-care facility in rural China: is it affordable for the poor?

Qian Long, Yaoguang Zhang, Joanna Raven, Zhuochun Wu, Lennart Bogg, Shenglan Tang & Elina Hemminki

Volume 89, Number 2, February 2011, 144-152

Table 2. Percentage change (PC) and absolute change in percentage (ACP) between 2002 and 2007 in total and out-of-pocket expenditurea on delivery at a health-care facility in rural China, by household income groupb

Parameter 2002 household income group (n = 900)
2007 household income group (n = 1 333)
Low (n = 308) Medium (n = 295) High (n = 297) Low (n = 445)
Medium (n = 470)
High (n = 418)
US$ US$ US$ US$ PC ACP US$ PC ACP US$ PC ACP
Mean annual household income 594 1167 2508 1186 +100 NA 2359 +102 NA 4812 +92 NA
All facility-based deliveries
Mean total expenditure per delivery 108 126 158 199 +84 NA 255 +102 NA 317 +100 NA
Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery 108 126 158 155 +43 NA 212 +69 NA 271 +71 NA
Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income 18.2c 10.8c 6.3c 13.1c NA −5.1 9.0c NA −1.8 5.6c NA −0.7
Vaginal delivery
Mean total expenditure per delivery 41 63 83 116 +184 NA 146 +132 NA 183 +120 NA
Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery 41 63 83 88 +115 NA 120 +91 NA 157 +89 NA
Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income 6.9c 5.4 c 3.3 c 7.4c NA +0.5 5.1c NA −0.3 3.3c NA 0
Caesarean delivery
Mean total expenditure per delivery 303 311 344 460 +52 NA 496 +60 NA 562 +63 NA
Mean out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery 303 311 344 377 +24 NA 423 +36 NA 480 +40 NA
Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of annual household income 51.0c 26.6c 13.7c 31.8c NA −19.2 17.9c NA −8.7 10.0c NA −3.7

NA, not applicable; US$, United States dollar.

a Expenditure was adjusted for inflation.

b Households were divided into three groups of equal size according to income: low, medium and high.

c Percentages.

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