Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Sensitivity of hospital-based surveillance for severe disease: a geographic information system analysis of access to care in Kilifi district, Kenya

Jennifer C Moïsi, D James Nokes, Hellen Gatakaa, Thomas N Williams, Evasius Bauni, Orin S Levine & J Anthony G Scott

Volume 89, Number 2, February 2011, 102-111

Table 1. Univariate all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) for continuous travel time variables and categorical covariates among children less than 5 years of age admitted to Kilifi District Hospital, Kilifi district, Kenya, 2004–2006

Variable RR (95% CI)
All admissions Pneumonia Suspected meningitis
Travel time
Pedestrian (60 m) 0.79 (0.76–0.84) 0.79 (0.76–0.82) 0.85 (0.80–0.90)
Vehicular (30 m) 0.73 (0.68–0.79) 0.72 (0.67–0.77) 0.77 (0.70–0.84)
Sex (baseline: Female)
Male 1.22 (1.15–1.30) 1.17 (1.06–1.28) 1.25 (1.15–1.36)
Ethnic group (baseline: Giriama)
Chonyi 0.63 (0.49–0.82) 0.61 (0.47–0.77) 0.66 (0.53–0.84)
Kauma 0.93 (0.73–1.20) 0.88 (0.70–1.11) 0.93 (0.71–1.22)
Luo 1.13 (0.81–1.58) 1.07 (0.73–1.60) 1.23 (0.79–1.93)
Duruma 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.76 (0.53–1.11) 0.71 (0.47–1.08)
Jibana 0.51 (0.36–0.71) 0.59 (0.37–0.95) 0.61 (0.34–1.11)
Other 1.02 (0.82–1.29) 0.99 (0.78–1.28) 0.93 (0.74–1.17)
Maternal educationa (baseline: < 0.5)
0.5 to < 0.6 0.58 (0.33–1.02) 0.59 (0.33–1.06) 0.59 (0.35–1.03)
0.6 to < 0.7 0.62 (0.35–1.12) 0.68 (0.13–1.31) 0.62 (0.36–1.06)
≥ 0.7 1.21 (0.81–1.82) 1.39 (0.90–2.16) 0.95 (0.58–1.55)
Migrant status (baseline: non-migrant)
Migrant 0.87 (0.80–0.96) 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.91 (0.76–1.07)
Season (baseline: dry)
Rainy 0.83 (0.78–0.88) 0.75 (0.70–0.81) 0.82 (0.73–0.92)
Year (baseline: 2004)
2005 0.85 (0.81–0.91) 0.75 (0.68–0.83) 0.76 (0.69–0.85)
2006 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 1.01 (0.89–1.16) 1.06 (0.93–1.21)

CI, confidence interval.

a Categories represent the proportion of women with any education in a child’s sublocation of residence.

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