Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios
Sara C Hitchman & Geoffrey T Fong
Volume 89, Number 3, March 2011, 195-202
Table 1. Descriptive statistics for gender smoking ratio (GSR), gender empowerment measure (GEM) and economic development in 74 countriesa
|ln(GNI per capita)d||9.30||1.08|
GNI, gross national income; ln, logarithm; SD, standard deviation.
a These were the countries for which data were available on all four measures.
b Male-to-female current cigarette smoking prevalence ratio. Current smoking rates obtained from reference.5
c Obtained from reference.17 Value range: 0 to 1. Values closer to 1 signify higher empowerment.
d GNI per capita in purchasing power parity dollars.
e Obtained from reference.17 Value range: 0 to 1. 0 signifies maximal equality and 1, maximal inequality.