Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time–series study
Ana M Novoa, Katherine Pérez, Elena Santamariña-Rubio & Carme Borrell
Volume 89, Number 6, June 2011, 422-431
Table 1. Traffic offences criminalized under the reformed Spanish penal code (2007) and their associated penalties
|Offence||Prison term||Finea||Community service||Licence suspension|
|Exceeding speed limitb||3–6 mob||6–12 mob||31–90 d||1–4 y|
|Driving under the influence of alcohol (BAC > 1.2 g/l) or other drugs||3–6 mob||6–12 mob||31–90 d||1–4 y|
|Reckless drivingc and risking the lives or safety of others||6–24 mo||1–6 y|
|Reckless driving,c showing contempt for the lives of others and risking their lives or safety||2–5 y||12–24 mo||6–10 y and vehicle requisition|
|Reckless driving,c showing contempt for the lives of others without risking their lives or safety||1–2 y||6–12 mo||6–10 y and vehicle requisition|
|Criminalized offences and injury to others||2.5–4 y||Definitive suspension|
|Refusing to undergo alcohol or other drugs tests||6–12 mo||1–4 y|
|Driving without a licence||3–6 mob||12–24 mob||10–40 d|
|Generating road traffic riskd||6–24 mob||12–24 mob||10–40 d|
BAC, blood alcohol concentration; d, days; mo, months; y, years.
a Between 60 and 1200 euros a month depending on economic and personal circumstances. Offenders can choose between a prison term and a fine.
b Driving at > 60 km/h on urban roads and at > 80 km/h on non-urban roads.
c Punishable speeding or driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
d Includes leaving obstacles on the road, spilling slippery or flammable substances, modifying or destroying road signs or not restoring road safety when responsible for altering it.