Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Spatial heterogeneity of haemoglobin concentration in preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa

Ricardo J Soares Magalhães & Archie CA Clements

Volume 89, Number 6, June 2011, 459-468

Table 2. Association of environmental variables with blood haemoglobin concentration in children aged less than 5 years in western and eastern Africa

Environmental variable Western Africaa
Eastern Africab
Coefficient (95%CI) P Coefficient (95%CI) P
DPWB –0.90 (–1.28 to –0.52) < 0.001 0.56 (0.19 to 0.93) 0.003
Elevation 0.88 (0.50 to 1.27) < 0.001 1.58 (1.10 to 2.07) < 0.001
LST –4.49 (–5.19 to –3.79) < 0.001 –1.68 (–2.18 to –1.18) < 0.001
NDVI –2.43 (–3.12 to –1.75) < 0.001 –0.74 (–1.22 to –0.26) 0.002
Intercept 96.90 (96.54 to 97.27) < 0.001 103.99 (103.63 to 104.35) < 0.001

CI, confidence interval; DPWB, distance to perennial water body; LST, land surface temperature; NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index.

a Includes Cameroon.

b Includes the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho and Swaziland.