Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and pregnancy outcomes in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression

Kosuke Kawai, Donna Spiegelman, Anuraj H Shankar & Wafaie W Fawzi

Volume 89, Number 6, June 2011, 402-411B

Table 2. Summary of pooled estimates for the effect of maternal micronutrient supplementation on pregnancy outcomes

Pregnancy outcome No. of trials Pooled RR or mean difference (95% CI) I2 (P-value)
Low birth weighta 15 0.86 (0.79–0.93) 41% (0.05)
Birth weight 15 44 g (28–60) 57% (0.003)
Preterm birthb 14 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0% (0.63)
Small size for gestational agec 15 0.85 (0.78–0.93) 47% (0.02)
Perinatal deathd 11 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 58% (0.008)
Neonatal deathe 11 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 28% (0.17)

CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.

a Birth weight < 2500 g.

b Birth before the 37th week of gestation.

c Birth weight below the 10th percentile of weight for gestational age.

d Death from the 28th week of gestation through the first week postpartum.

e Death within 28 days of delivery.