Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on child nutrition in Brazil

Rômulo Paes-Sousa, Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos & Édina Shisue Miazaki

Volume 89, Number 7, July 2011, 496-503

Table 1. Social, demographic and health characteristics of children under 5 years of age included in exposed to Bolsa Família programme, Brazil, 2005–2006

Characteristic All children (n = 22 375) Exposed (n = 9 152) Not exposed (n = 13 223) Difference in % points P
Gender
Male (%) 48.7 48.4 49.0 0.385
Female (%) 51.3 51.6 51.0
Age (months)
0–11 39.3 31.2 44.8 +13.4 < 0.000
12–35 33.2 33.5 33.1
36–59 27.5 35.3 22.1
Possession of birth certificate
Yes 92.6 93.8 91.7 −2.1 < 0.000
No 7.4 6.2 8.3
Birth weight (from Child Health Card)
Normal (≥ 2.5 kg) 92.8 93.0 92.7 0.554
Low (< 2.5 kg) 7.2 7.0 7.3
Nutritional deficit (below −2.00 SD)
Height for age 12.6 14.5 11.1 −3.4 < 0.000
Weight for age 4.7 5.5 4.0 −1.5 < 0.000
Weight for height 2.9 2.8 3.0 0.295
Possession of Child Health Card
Yes, in hands 97.5 97.7 97.4 0.227
Yes, did not show 2.2 2.0 2.3
No 0.3 0.3 0.4
Family head schooling
No schooling 15.9 20.4 12.8 −7.6 < 0.000
1–4 years 37.5 45.0 32.3
5–8 years 26.1 23.3 28.0
≥ 9 years 20.6 11.3 26.9 +15.6
Family head gender
Male 75.3 74.3 76.1 +1.8 0.003
Female 24.7 25.7 23.9
House with electricity
Yes 89.6 87.9 90.7 +2.8 < 0.000
No 10.4 12.1 9.3
House with piped water
Yes 59.7 57.1 61.5 +4.4 < 0.000
No 40.3 42.9 38.5

SD, standard deviation.