Health research systems: promoting health equity or economic competitiveness?
Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff
Volume 90, Number 1, January 2012, 55-62
Table 1. The new model of health research and its alignment with product development public–private partnerships and international pharmaceutical trials
|Features of research influenced by high-income government policies||Features of product development public−private partnerships||Features of international pharmaceutical trials|
|Leads to products that can be commercialized − basic, clinical and translational research||Support basic and clinical research that leads to products that can be commercialized. Clinical trials are usually performed in developing countries
||Support clinical research that leads to products that can be commercialized. Trials are increasingly performed in developing countries
|Targets health needs that can be met by profitable, high-technology products||Target health needs that can be met by high-technology products||Target health needs that can be met by profitable, high-technology products. Target chronic and lifestyle diseases with large markets|
|Endpoint is the licensing of a new product||Endpoint is the commercialization of products. Several product development public−private partnerships plan to create licensing agreements with manufacturers in developing countries, ensuring their products are available at low-cost
||Endpoint is the licensing of new products, though not necessarily in developing countries where trials were conducted. Host governments of trials are considered responsible for product availability and adoption
|Evaluates research activities and outputs according to their contribution to the national economy||Research activities and outputs not evaluated according to their profitability. Contribute to the economies of high-income countries through the re-investment of funding
||Evaluate research activities and outputs according to their profitability. Aim to create a sizeable differential between product development costs and the revenue generated by product sales
|Demands educational structures that emphasize science and combine science and business training.||Rely upon educational structures that emphasize science and combine science and business training||Rely upon educational structures that emphasize science and combine science and business training|
|Does not strongly support research capacity strengthening for innovation in other countries||May support clinical research capacity strengthening in other countries
||Do not support research capacity strengthening for innovation in other countries. Trials emphasize profitability, hypermobility and speed.
|Characterized by partnerships between government agencies, academia and industry||Characterized by partnerships between public agencies, academia, private foundations and industry||Rely upon the findings of publicly-funded basic research. Trials may be outsourced to academic medical centres|