Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries

Rob ES Bain, Stephen W Gundry, Jim A Wright, Hong Yang, Steve Pedley & Jamie K Bartram

Volume 90, Number 3, March 2012, 228-235A

Table 2. Compliance of drinking-water sources with WHO guidelines on contamination in five countries, Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality project, 2004–2005

Improved drinking-water source type,a by country Population coverageb (%) Microbial compliancec
Overall complianced
Compliant sources (%) Sources sampled (n) Compliant sources (%) Sources sampled (n)
Ethiopia
Piped supply from a public utility 19.8 87.6 838 80.4 832
Borehole 5.1 67.9 290 65.6 270
Protected spring 7.0 43.3 319 43.3 313
Protected dug well 5.0 54.8 155 54.8 155
Total 36.9 1602 1570
Jordan
Piped supply from a public utility 93.4 99.9 1639 97.8 1639
Other improved sourcee 4.5 NA 0 NA 0
Total 97.9 1639 1639
Nicaragua
Piped supply from a public utility 69.0f 89.9 335 89.1g 335
Community supply 6.6f 39.0 265 38.6g 265
Borehole or tube well 4.6f 45.7 442 41.6g 442
Protected dug well 3.9f 19.3 446 18.5g 446
Other improved sourcee 0.1f NA 0 NA 0
Total 84.1f 1488 1488
Nigeria
Piped supply from a public utility 19.6 77.0 630 77.0 630
Borehole or tube well 14.7 94.0 525 86.0 525
Protected dug well 12.9 56.0 424 51.0 424
Total 47.2 1579 1579
Tajikistan
Piped supply from a public utility 58.4 88.6 1286 88.2 1286
Protected spring 9.6 82.0 334 82.0 334
Other improved sourcee 1.2 NA 0 NA 0
Total 69.2 1620 1620

NA, not available; WHO, World Health Organization.

a The Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality (RADWQ) project assessed only water source types classified as improved by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.

b The percentage of the population receiving drinking-water from each source in 2004 to 2005 was estimated from RADWQ project reports.

c Compliance with WHO guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria.

d Compliance with WHO guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliforms, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates.

e Apart from in the Nicaraguan study, types of improved water source used by less than 5% of the population were not sampled during the RADWQ project.

f Since, unlike reports for other countries, the RADWQ report for Nicaragua did not record the proportion of unimproved sources, Joint Monitoring Programme figures were used to estimate population coverage in the country.

g Since overall compliance was not recorded in the RADWQ report for Nicaragua, overall compliance was estimated from separate chemical and microbial compliance figures on the assumption that the two were independent.