Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries
Rob ES Bain, Stephen W Gundry, Jim A Wright, Hong Yang, Steve Pedley & Jamie K Bartram
Volume 90, Number 3, March 2012, 228-235A
Table 3. Estimated population without access to safe drinking-water in five countries, by assessment method, 1990–2008
|Assessment method, by country||Population without access to safe drinking-water (millions)a
|JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec||42.8||48.4||52.0||55.0||57.3|
|JMP adjusted for overall complianced||43.1||48.9||52.8||56.2||58.9|
|JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec||0.1||0·1||0.2||0.2||0.2|
|JMP adjusted for overall complianced||0.2||0·2||0.3||0.3||0.4|
|JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec||1.8||1.8||1.8||1.8||1.7|
|JMP adjusted for overall complianced||1.8||1.9||1.9||1.8||1.8|
|JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec||63.7||68.3||73.0||78.0||81.1|
|JMP adjusted for overall complianced||64.5||69.8||75.4||81.6||85.5|
|JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec||NA||2.6||2.7||2.8||2.9|
|JMP adjusted for overall complianced||NA||2.6||2.8||2.8||2.9|
JMP, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation; NA, not available.
a United Nations population data were obtained from the JMP web site.
b The population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures.
c Microbial compliance: the population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures adjusted for the percentage compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria derived during the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality (RADWQ) project.
d Overall compliance: the population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures adjusted for the percentage compliance with WHO guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliforms, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates derived during the RADWQ project.