Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Accounting for water quality in monitoring access to safe drinking-water as part of the Millennium Development Goals: lessons from five countries

Rob ES Bain, Stephen W Gundry, Jim A Wright, Hong Yang, Steve Pedley & Jamie K Bartram

Volume 90, Number 3, March 2012, 228-235A

Table 3. Estimated population without access to safe drinking-water in five countries, by assessment method, 1990–2008

Assessment method, by country Population without access to safe drinking-water (millions)a
1990 1995 2000 2005 2008
Ethiopia
JMPb 40.1 44.4 47.2 48.5 50.0
JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec 42.8 48.4 52.0 55.0 57.3
JMP adjusted for overall complianced 43.1 48.9 52.8 56.2 58.9
Jordan
JMPb 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec 0.1 0·1 0.2 0.2 0.2
JMP adjusted for overall complianced 0.2 0·2 0.3 0.3 0.4
Nicaragua
JMPb 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9
JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7
JMP adjusted for overall complianced 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Nigeria
JMPb 51.6 55.2 58.7 60.6 63.5
JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec 63.7 68.3 73.0 78.0 81.1
JMP adjusted for overall complianced 64.5 69.8 75.4 81.6 85.5
Tajikistan
JMPb NA 2.3 NA NA 2.5
JMP adjusted for microbial compliancec NA 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
JMP adjusted for overall complianced NA 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.9

JMP, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation; NA, not available.

a United Nations population data were obtained from the JMP web site.

b The population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures.

c Microbial compliance: the population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures adjusted for the percentage compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliform bacteria derived during the Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality (RADWQ) project.

d Overall compliance: the population without access to safe drinking-water was estimated using the original JMP figures adjusted for the percentage compliance with WHO guidelines on drinking-water contamination with thermotolerant coliforms, arsenic, fluoride and nitrates derived during the RADWQ project.