Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Influenza-associated mortality in temperate and subtropical Chinese cities, 2003–2008

Luzhao Feng, David K Shay, Yong Jiang, Hong Zhou, Xin Chen, Yingdong Zheng, Lili Jiang, Qingjun Zhang, Hong Lin, Shaojie Wang, Yanyan Ying, Yanjun Xu, Nanda Wang, Zijian Feng, Cecile Viboud, Weizhong Yang & Hongjie Yu

Volume 90, Number 4, April 2012, 279-288B

Table 3. Influenza-associated excess mortality in eight cities, by influenza virus type and subtype, China, 2003–2008

Season Positive respiratory specimens (%)
No. (%) of excess deaths per 100 000 people with death coded as:
A(H1N1) A(H3N2) B Respiratory and circulatory disease
All-cause
All A(H1N1) A(H3N2) B All A(H1N1) A(H3N2) B
Three northern citiesa
2002–03b 4.3 54.3 41.4 9.8 0.1 (1.3) 3.8 (39.2) 5.8 (59.6) 15.3 0.2 (1.2) 5.8 (38.0) 9.3 (60.8)
2003–04 3.4 94.7 1.8 9.6 0.2 (1.6) 9.1 (95.3) 0.3 (3.1) 13.7 0.2 (1.6) 13.0 (94.9) 0.5 (3.4)
2004–05 2.2 49.1 48.7 14.9 0.1 (0.7) 5.2 (35.1) 9.6 (64.2) 21.5 0.2 (0.8) 7.2 (33.6) 14.1 (65.6)
2005–06 81.3 7.7 11.1 7.4 4.3 (58.1) 0.8 (11.3) 2.3 (30.6) 10.9 6.2 (57.5) 1.2 (11.2) 3.4 (31.4)
2006–07 31.7 53.2 15.0 14.1 2.2 (15.9) 7.8 (55.5) 4.0 (28.6) 19.7 3.2 (16.2) 10.6 (53.9) 5.9 (29.9)
2007–08 1.2 32.3 66.5 22.2 0.0 (0.2) 4.7 (21.1) 17.5 (78.7) 32.7 0.1 (0.3) 6.6 (20.0) 26.1 (79.7)
2008–09b 97.2 2.3 0.5 2.1 2.0 (93.7) 0.1 (3.6) 0.1 (2.7) 3.4 3.2 (95.5) 0.1 (2.8) 0.1 (1.7)
Mean 38.5 33.9 27.6 12.4 1.3 (10.7) 4.9 (39.7) 6.2 (49.6) 18.0 2.0 (10.9) 6.9 (38.2) 9.2 (50.9)
Five southern citiesc
2002–03b 4.0 74.0 22.0 5.3 0 (0) 2.3 (44.0) 3.0 (56.0) 6.6 0 (0) 3.1 (46.7) 3.5 (53.3)
2003–04 0.0 93.2 6.8 5.5 0 (0) 4.5 (82.0) 1.0 (18.0) 7.3 0 (0) 6.0 (82.3) 1.3 (17.7)
2004–05 8.7 66.3 24.9 14.0 0 (0) 5.8 (41.7) 8.2 (58.3) 17.8 0 (0) 7.8 (43.7) 10.0 (56.3)
2005–06 53.2 11.1 35.7 9.3 0 (0) 1.0 (10.6) 8.3 (89.4) 12.0 0 (0) 1.4 (12.1) 10.6 (87.9)
2006–07 35.0 44.7 20.3 6.3 0 (0) 2.9 (45.3) 3.5 (54.7) 8.0 0 (0) 3.6 (44.8) 4.4 (55.2)
2007–08 5.7 35.2 59.1 13.6 0 (0) 2.3 (16.9) 11.3 (83.1) 17.4 0 (0) 3.1 (17.8) 14.3 (82.2)
2008–09b 71.3 12.9 15.8 2.8 0 (0) 0.6 (23.2) 2.1 (76.8) 3.5 0 (0) 0.9 (25.7) 2.6 (74.3)
Mean 29.7 38.9 31.4 8.8 0 (0) 3.0 (33.9) 5.8 (66.1) 11.3 0 (0) 4.0 (35.2) 7.3 (64.8)

a Dalian, Qingdao and Zhaoyuan.

b Because the study was based on data collected between the start of 2003 and the end of 2008, only the results for the last half of the 2002–03 season (i.e. January 2003 to June 2003) and the first half of the 2008–09 season (i.e. July 2008 to December 2008) are included.

c Guangzhou, Ningbo, Shanghai, Wuhan and Yichang.