Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Influenza-associated mortality in temperate and subtropical Chinese cities, 2003–2008

Luzhao Feng, David K Shay, Yong Jiang, Hong Zhou, Xin Chen, Yingdong Zheng, Lili Jiang, Qingjun Zhang, Hong Lin, Shaojie Wang, Yanyan Ying, Yanjun Xu, Nanda Wang, Zijian Feng, Cecile Viboud, Weizhong Yang & Hongjie Yu

Volume 90, Number 4, April 2012, 279-288B

Table 4. Comparison of estimates of annual influenza-associated excess mortality in China and other selected locations, by age and cause of death as codeda or recorded

Study area Model Study period Proportion of influenza seasons by:
Excess deaths (per 100 000 people)
A(H3N2) B All ages
Age ≥ 65 years
P&I R&C AC P&I R&C AC
Australia15 Poisson 1997–2004 NA NA NA NA NA 15.2 80.4 101.2
China (Guangzhou)21 Poisson 2004–2006 2/3 0/3 1.0 9.9 10.6 NA 104.1 111.3
China (northern cities)b Negative binomial 2003–2008 2.5/6 1/6 0.4 12.4 18.0 3.1 106.0 150.8
China (northern cities)b Serfling 2003–2008 2.5/6 1/6 0.4 13.4 17.0 2.6 108.1 131.3
China (southern cities)b Negative binomial 2003–2008 2.5/6 1/6 0.5 8.8 11.3 3.6 64.3 75.4
China (Hong Kong SAR)19 Poisson 1996–1999 4/4 0/4 4.1 12.4 16.4 39.3 102.0 136.1
Italy11,12 Serfling 1970–2001 21/31 5/31 1.9–2.2 NA 11.6–18.6 12.7–14.2 NA 71.2–115.7
Mexico16 Serfling 2000–2008 6/9 1/9 1.5 12.7 15.7 10.4c 115.6c 147.4c
Singapore22 Negative binomial 1996–2003 8/8 0/8 2.9 11.9 14.8 46.9 155.4 167.8
United States4 Poisson 1990–1999 6/9 2/9 3.1 13.8 19.6 22.1 98.3 132.5
United States3 Poisson 1976–2002 14/27 9/27 NA 9.9 NA NA 72.4 NA
United States5 Poisson 1976–2007 17/31 9/31 2.4 9.0 NA 17.0 66.1 NA
United States10 Serfling 1980–2001 12/21 6/21 2.9 NA 15.0 22.0 NA 100.0

AC, all-cause; NA, not available; P&I, pneumonia and influenza; R&C, respiratory and circulatory disease; SAR, Special Administrative Region.

a International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision.28

b Data from present study.

c Data for age ≥ 60 years.