Chronic hepatitis C treatment outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Nathan Ford, Catherine Kirby, Kasha Singh, Edward J Mills, Graham Cooke, Adeeba Kamarulzaman & Philipp duCros
Volume 90, Number 7, July 2012, 540-550
Table 1. Effect of treatment, disease, patient and study covariates on the sustained virological responsea rate in patients with a chronic hepatitis C virus infection in low- and middle-income countries, by meta-regression analysis
|Covariate||No. of reportsb||Univariate analysis
|β coefficient (95% CI)||P-value||β coefficient (95% CI)||P-value|
||44||−10.6 (−18.0 to −3.1)||0.006||−7.8 (−16.6 to 0.9)||0.07|
|Ribavirin not administered
||7||27.5 (13.8 to 41.2)||< 0.0001||1.6 (−21.8 to 18.6)||0.9|
||14||1.2 (−8.5 to 10.9)||0.8||ND||ND|
|Genotype 1 or 4
||46||−10.2 (−17.7 to −2.5)||0.01||−11.9 (−23.8 to 0)||0.005|
|Not genotype 1 or 4
|Liver damage at baseline|
||24||−12.2 (−23.2 to −1.3)||0.03||ND||ND|
||3||−32.4 (−50.5 to −14.2)||0.001||−28.9 (−45.9 to −11.9)||0.001|
|Economic level of study regionc|
|Low- or lower-middle income
||30||−13.0 (−20.7 to −5.2)||0.001||−6.7 (−19.4 to 6.0)||0.3|
||65||−2.6 (−11 to 5.7)||0.5||ND||ND|
CI, confidence interval; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; NA, not applicable; ND, not determined.
a A sustained virological response was defined as the absence of detectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood 24 weeks after the completion of antiviral therapy.
b Since one publication77 reported one study fully and gave the preliminary outcomes of a second study, the figures here could differ by 1 from those in the text.
c The level of economic development of the study country was categorized using The World Bank classification.16