Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

Michael D Sweat, Julie Denison, Caitlin Kennedy, Virginia Tedrow & Kevin O'Reilly

Volume 90, Number 8, August 2012, 613-622A

Table 2. Characteristics of studies on condom use included in quantitative synthesis

Study Setting Population Intervention description Study design
Agha et al., 200112 Mozambique (all 10 provinces) Adults, youth, and high-risk populations National condom social marketing programme for JeitO condoms. Communications strategy included peer education debates known as fogo cruzado (crossfire) and community based street theatre with messages promoting safer sex. The project invested heavily in training and materials development for both interpersonal and mass media communications. Mass media advertising, particularly through radio, was positioned to complement behaviour change activities at the individual level. Radio spots were aired thousands of times in 10 local languages as well as in Portuguese to promote safer sex and the use of JeitO condoms. Other media used by the project include print, outdoor advertising and televisions. Cross-sectional assessment comparing provinces in which the CSM campaign was active for 18 months to those where it was active for less than 6 months. Overall sample, n = 5 142. Random selection of study participants.
Gender: 45.3% male, 54.7% female
Age: NR
Lipovsek et al., 201013 India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu) Male clients 18 years and older of FSW in southern India Integrated behaviour change communication programme targeted at adult male clients of female sex workers. Programme used multiple media channels including interpersonal communication, outdoor static promotional materials and mid-media activities to deliver message around consistent condom use which were changed every 3 months. Programme introduced affordable condoms in > 65 000 retail outlets. Serial cross sectional study design. Sample for each cross-sectional design: Apr 06, n = 2 401; Dec 06, n = 1 756; May 07, n = 1 741, Feb 08, n = 1 779; Nov 08, n = 2 382. Random sampling of hotspots and systematic sampling of individuals.
Gender: 100% male
Mean age range: 29–31 years
Meekers, 200014 South Africa (Welkom) Male miners Distribution of “Lovers Plus” condoms to traditional and non-traditional outlets and promotion of their use through peer education and distribution, and mass media campaigns (including point-of-sale materials, a radio campaign, press advertisements and billboard messages, and road shows using video show, question and answer sessions, and condom use demonstrations in hostels and mining areas). Serial cross-sectional study design. Baseline, n = 928; follow-up, n = 200. Random selection of study participants. Baseline and follow-up sites were not the same, but were similar types of mining operations.
Gender: 100% male
Age: NR
Plautz & Meekers, 200715 Cameroon (Douala and Yaounde) Unmarried adolescents aged 15–24 The 100% Jeune programme included peer education sessions, a weekly radio call-in show, a monthly magazine, 100% Jeune, Le Journal, and a serial radio drama titled Solange, Let's Talk about Sex. In addition, integrated television, radio, and billboard campaigns and a network of branded youth-friendly Vendeurs des Amis des Jeunes condom outlets supported intervention activities. Programme activities were integrated into a pre-existing national contraceptive social marketing programme. Condoms were available and sold in youth-friendly distribution points. Serial cross-sectional study design with surveys spaced 18 months apart in 2000 (n = 1956), 2002 (n = 3 237), and 2003 (n = 3 370). Random selection of study participants.
Gender (2000, 2002, 2003):
Male: 54.0%, 54.2%, 55.0%
Female: 46.0%, 45.8%, 45.0%
Age (2000, 2002, 2003):
15–19: 57.3%, 61.1%, 60.3%
20–24: 42.7%, 38.9%, 39.7%
Van Rossen & Meekers, 200016 Cameroon (Edéa and Bafia) Young adults Gender: NR Youth-targeted behaviour change communication and promotion, distribution of “Prudence Plus” condoms and “Novelle” oral contraceptives, peer education, youth clubs (club members received promotional items as T-shirts,caps, belt-packs, carrying the logo of the Prudence Plus condom), mass media advertising and information, education and communication campaigns. All campaign messages were disseminated through youth-oriented promotional events, peer education and counselling, radio talk shows, brochures and other media. Serial cross-sectional study design comparing two communities (purposefully sampled). Baseline, n = 1 606; follow-up, n = 1 633. Random selection of study participants.
Age: NR
Van Rossem & Meekers, 200717 Zambia (nationwide) Women aged 15–49 and men aged 15–59 in the Demographic and Health Survey of 2001–2002 in Zambia. Social marketing and health communication campaigns targeted at general population and high-risk groups including women, adolescents, young adults, truck drivers and commercial sex workers. Included four radio and four television programmes aired nationwide. In addition, it included a condom social marketing campaign that used intensive mass media and interpersonal communications and distributed subsidized condoms. Cross sectional design. Overall sample 9 803 (females = 7 658; males = 2 145) Respondents were drawn from a 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. Probability sampling comparisons made by level of exposure to intervention.
Gender: 21.9% male, 78.1% female
Age: females, 15–49; males, 15–59

FSW, female sex workers; NR, not reported.