Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Effects of condom social marketing on condom use in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 1990–2010

Michael D Sweat, Julie Denison, Caitlin Kennedy, Virginia Tedrow & Kevin O'Reilly

Volume 90, Number 8, August 2012, 613-622A

Table 4. Random effects model meta-analysis of condom use during most recent sexual encounter

Study Subgroup within study Outcome Statistics
OR (95% CI) Za P
Agha et al., 200112 Males and females Condom use last sexual encounter 3.6 (2.7–4.8) 8.9 0.000
Lipovsek et al., 201013 Males Condom use FSW last 12 months 2.3 (1.8–2.9) 7.0 0.000
Meekers, 200014 Males Condom use last sexual encounter 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.4 0.174
Plautz & Meekers, 200715 Females Condom use last sexual encounter 6.2 (5.1–7.5) 18.8 0.000
Plautz & Meekers, 200715 Males Condom use last sexual encounter 2.8 (2.3–3.3) 11.8 0.000
Van Rossem & Meekers, 200016 Females Condom use last sexual encounter 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 1.8 0.071
Van Rossem & Meekers, 200016 Males Condom use last sexual encounter 1.6 (1.0–2.6) 1.9 0.053
Van Rossem & Meekers, 200717 Females Condom use last sexual encounter 1.0 (1.0–1.0) 0.3 0.762
Van Rossem & Meekers, 200717 Males Condom use last sexual encounter 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 3.0 0.004
Pooled 2.0 (1.4–2.8) 4.0 0.000

CI, confidence interval; FSW, female sex worker; OR, odds ratio.

a The Z-test is an additional test of heterogeneity and reflects the deviation from the mean of the combined effect size divided by the standard error across included studies.