Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Male circumcision programmes in Kenya: lessons from the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007

Zebedee Mwandi, Rebecca Bunnell, Peter Cherutich, Jonathan Mermin, Andrea A Kim, Anthony Gichangi, Patrick Mureithi, Timothy A Kellogg, Tom Oluoch, James Muttunga, Carol Ngare, Evelyn Kim & Reinhard Kaiser

Volume 90, Number 9, September 2012, 642-651

Table 1. Circumcised and uncircumcised men aged 15–64 years, Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007

Variable Circumcised men (n = 6 586)
Uncircumcised men (n = 1 092)
No. Weighted %a (95% CI) No. Weighted %a (95% CI)
Total 6586 3.9 (3.3–4.5) 1092 13.2 (10.8–15.7)
Age group, years
15–24 2008 31.6 (30.0–33.3) 505 48.8 (45.2–52.4)
25–34 1654 24.5 (23.1–25.9) 227 20.1 (17.3–22.8)
35–44 1249 19.0 (17.8–20.2) 161 14.4 (12.1–16.7)
45–54 953 13.8 (12.9–14.7) 125 10.2 (8.3–12.1)
55–64 722 11.0 (10.1–11.9) 74 6.6 (4.8–8.3)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Province
Nairobi 792 8.9 (7.3–10.5) 133 10.2 (5.7–14.7)
Central 1072 16.0 (14.4–17.7) 49 4.3 (2.6–6.0)
Coast 794 8.6 (7.3–9.9) 28 1.5 (0.8–2.3)
Eastern 1243 20.6 (18.0–23.3) 52 4.5 (2.4–6.6)
North-Eastern 325 2.0 (1.6–2.4) 9 0.3 (0.0–0.6)
Nyanza 533 8.6 (7.2–10.1) 566 52.9 (46.3–59.4)
Rift Valley 970 23.0 (20.3–25.6) 120 16.7 (12.2–21.2)
Western 857 12.2 (10.6–13.8) 135 9.7 (5.2–14.1)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Area of residence
Rural 4880 77.2 (74.1–80.3) 836 79.8 (74.2–85.4)
Urban 1706 22.8 (19.7–25.9) 256 20.2 (14.6–25.8)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Educational level
No primary 605 6.5 (5.4–7.6) 54 6.4 (3.7–9.1)
Incomplete primary 1696 27.2 (25.3–29.1) 429 41.1 (36.5–45.6)
Complete primary 1580 24.6 (23.2–26.1) 259 23.5 (20.4–26.5)
Secondary or higher 2705 41.7 (39.3–44.1) 350 29.0 (24.8–33.3)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Marital status
Never married or cohabited 2301 35.3 (33.6–37.0) 489 46.9 (43.1–50.8)
Currently married or cohabiting 3918 58.8 (57.0–60.7) 551 48.6 (44.9–52.3)
Separated or divorced 288 4.5 (3.9–5.1) 34 2.8 (1.6–3.9)
Widowed 79 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 18 1.7 (0.8–2.5)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Ethnic tribe
Embu 101 1.6 (0.9–2.3) 2 0.2 (0.0–0.5)
Kalenjin 545 11.0 (8.8–13.1) 41 5.9 (2.4–9.3)
Kamba 809 13.6 (10.5–16.8) 6 0.8 (0.0–1.8)
Kikuyu 1590 25.2 (22.6–27.7) 54 4.8 (2.8–6.9)
Kisii 509 8.2 (6.8–9.5) 5 0.4 (0.0–0.8)
Luhya 1161 17.0 (15.0–18.9) 81 5.7 (2.1–9.2)
Luo 147 2.3 (1.6–2.9) 739 66.7 (60.5–72.9)
Masai 68 2.0 (0.7–3.3) 3 0.4 (0.0–0.8)
Meru 438 7.5 (6.3–8.7) 32 3.1 (1.5–4.8)
Mijikenda 448 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 0
Somali 383 2.4(2.0–2.9) 5 0.2 (0.0–0.4)
Taita/Taveta 110 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 2 0.1 (0.0–0.2)
Swahili 10 0.1 (0.0–0.1) 0
Other 267 3.2 (2.2–4.2) 122 11.7 (7.3–16.1)
Total 6586 100 (NA) 1092 100 (NA)
Self-reported HIV status
Never tested or unknownb 4833 76.2 (74.6–77.8) 791 75.7 (71.8–79.5)
Negative 1530 23.3 (21.7–24.9) 239 22.0 (18.2–25.9)
Positive 29 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 27 2.3 (1.3–3.3)
Total 6392 100 (NA) 1057 100 (NA)
HSV-2 infection
No 4355 75.8 (74.3–77.4) 546 59.3 (55.6–63.1)
Yes 1320 24.2 (22.6–25.7) 396 40.7 (36.9–44.4)
Total 5675 100 (NA) 942 100 (NA)
Consistent condom use with most recent partner in the last 12 months
Yes 601 12.3 (11.1–13.5) 124 16.1 (12.7–19.4)
No 4389 87.7 (86.5–88.9) 633 83.9 (80.6–87.3)
Total 4990 100 (NA) 757 100 (NA)
Number of sexual partners of unknown or discordant HIV status in the last 12 months
0 1037 23.4 (21.8–25.0) 136 20.2 (15.5–24.9)
1 2962 66.8 (65.1–68.5) 423 63.2 (58.1–68.2)
2 371 8.5 (7.5–9.5) 92 12.9 (9.9–15.8)
3 or more 56 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 29 3.8 (2.3–5.3)
Total 4426 100 (NA) 680 100 (NA)
Unprotected sex in the last 12 monthsc
With partner of unknown or discordant status 3143 65.0 (62.9–67.0) 463 63.1 (56.8–69.3)
With partner of concordant status 1137 23.3 (21.5–25.1) 156 21.1 (17.0–25.2)
Did not have unprotected sex 566 11.7 (10.5–13.0) 118 15.8 (12.4–19.3)
Total 4846 100 (NA) 737 100 (NA)

CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus 2; NA, not applicable.

a Each man’s response was weighted to take its sampling probability into account and to adjust for the nonresponse rate.

b In total, 74 circumcised men and 26 uncircumcised men had been tested but did not know their HIV status.

c An individual was classified as having had unprotected sex in the last 12 months if he had unprotected sex during at least one of the three most recent sex acts in the last 12 months.