Effect of vitamin A supplementation on cause-specific mortality in women of reproductive age in Ghana: a secondary analysis from the ObaapaVitA trial
Lisa Hurt, Augustinus ten Asbroek, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Samuel Danso, Karen Edmond, Chris Hurt, Charlotte Tawiah, Zelee Hill, Justin Fenty, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Oona M Campbell & Betty R Kirkwood
Volume 91, Number 1, January 2013, 19-27
Table 1. Vitamin A supplementation and cause-specific mortality among women, Ghana, 2000–2008
|Cause||No. of deaths
||RR (95% CI)a|
|All deaths||1298||1326||1.01 (0.93–1.09)|
|Deaths caused by:|
|All infections||512||540||1.04 (0.92–1.18)|
|Disorders of blood and blood-forming organs||44||61||1.37 (0.93–2.02)|
|Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases||15||15||0.99 (0.49–2.00)|
|Neuropsychiatric conditions||7||11||1.55 (0.60–4.01)|
|Circulatory diseases||81||75||0.92 (0.66–1.26)|
|Respiratory diseases||6||6||0.99 (0.32–3.05)|
|Digestive diseases||28||29||1.03 (0.60–1.76)|
|Genitourinary diseases||23||21||0.90 (0.50–1.63)|
|Other known cause||2||5||2.48 (0.48–12.80)|
|Signs and symptoms not classified elsewherec||39||35||0.89 (0.56–1.40)|
|Uncertain or unknown cause||286||302||1.04 (0.88–1.23)|
CI, confidence interval; RR, rate ratio.
a Calculated, as the mortality rate in the vitamin A arm divided by that in the placebo arm, after adjusting for clustering by use of random-effects models. The data come from an intention-to-treat analysis.
b All deaths during pregnancy, labour or delivery or within 42 days of pregnancy, regardless of cause
c Includes deaths associated with an acute abdomen, instantaneous deaths, deaths within 24 hours of symptom onset and unattended deaths.