Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world
Lawrence C Loh, Cesar Ugarte-Gil & Kwame Darko
Volume 91, Number 3, March 2013, 227-233
Table 1. The most recent estimates of physician expatriation and other features of the health systems of Ghana, India and Peru, 2000–2010
|No. of physicians living abroad||1469||55 794||2807|
|Physician expatriation rate (%)||31.2||8.0||7.9|
|Out-of-pocket contributions (% of health expenditure)||65.9||87.0||75.3|
|Health insurance coverage (% of population)|
|Physicians working in private sector (%)||10.0||51.9||50.0|
|Main source of physician income from private sector||Fees for services||Fees for services||Fees for services|
|Universal health-care coverage guaranteed by government?||No||No||Yesb|
|Annual expenditure on private health care (United States dollars per capita)||33||86||197|
a The range shown indicates the variation in recent estimates.
b In principle.