Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world

Lawrence C Loh, Cesar Ugarte-Gil & Kwame Darko

Volume 91, Number 3, March 2013, 227-233

Table 1. The most recent estimates of physician expatriation and other features of the health systems of Ghana, India and Peru, 2000–2010

Variable Ghana India Peru
No. of physicians living abroad 1469 55 794 2807
Physician expatriation rate (%) 31.2 8.0 7.9
Out-of-pocket contributions (% of health expenditure) 65.9 87.0 75.3
Health insurance coverage (% of population)
    public 56 11–15a 42
    private 18 1 2
Physicians working in private sector (%) 10.0 51.9 50.0
Main source of physician income from private sector Fees for services Fees for services Fees for services
Universal health-care coverage guaranteed by government? No No Yesb
Annual expenditure on private health care (United States dollars per capita) 33 86 197

a The range shown indicates the variation in recent estimates.

b In principle.