Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia

Tim Ensor, Cathy Green, Paula Quigley, Abdul Razak Badru, Dynes Kaluba & Tendayi Kureya

Volume 92, Number 1, January 2014, 51-59

Table 3. Change in maternal health indicators associated with the intervention, by analytical approach, 2011–2012, Zambia

Indicator Unadjusted
Adjusted for covariates
Propensity score matching
Calliper
Radius
Nearest neighbour
Difference-in-difference estimatea tb Difference-in-difference estimatea tb Difference-in-difference estimatea tb Difference-in-difference estimatea tb Difference-in-difference estimatea tb
Women who used emergency transport 14.0 14.26* 14.6 14* 12.4 2.81* 13.1 2.75* 18.7 3.47*
Women who knew three obstetric danger signs 10.1 3.85* 10.5 3.79* 14.2 4.25* 14.9 4.44* 10.3 3.79*
Women who knew they should receive antenatal care in the first trimester 18.1 7.14* 16.6 6.18* 15.5 4.97* 14.5 4.43* 15.7 6.54*
Women who received four or more antenatal care visits from a skilled birth attendant, with the first in the first trimester 5.5 2.08* 4.7 1.70 5.0 1.52 6.1 1.68 4.0 1.4
All deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant 21.4 8.32* 18.4 6.8* 24.0 7.51* 22.0 6.48* 22.0 8.56*
Deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant at a health-care facility 19.3 6.02* 16.3 6.02* 21.0 6.23* 18.7 5.2* 16.4 5.9*
Women who received postnatal care within 6 days 2.3 0.88 0.6 0.23 2.5 0.75 5.3 1.50 0.2 0.08
Women who used modern contraception immediately after giving birth 6.8 2.57* 7.1 2.55* 4.0 1.29 6.0 1.66 6.0 2.09*

* P < 0.05.

a The difference-in-difference estimate is a measure of the difference between the change from before to after treatment in intervention districts and the change from before to after treatment in control districts. It is given in percentage points.

b The t-statistic is the ratio of the change in percentage to the standard error.