Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications

Sarah L White, Richard Hirth, Beatriz Mahíllo, Beatriz Domínguez-Gil, Francis L Delmonico, Luc Noel, Jeremy Chapman, Rafael Matesanz, Mar Carmona, Marina Alvarez, Jose R Núñez & Alan Leichtman

Volume 92, Number 11, November 2014, 826-835

Table 1. Association between solid organ transplantation activity and macroeconomic and health-system factors, 2006–2011

Predictor OR (95% CI)
Any transplantation activity (n = 187)a Deceased donor transplantation activity (n = 111)a,b
Macroeconomics versus health servicesc
GNI per capita, in international dollars (per unit increase in the natural log) 1.31 (0.70–2.46) 3.16 (0.97–10.28)
Physicians per 1000 population (per additional physician per 1000) 10.1 (2.01–50.3) 0.61 (0.17–2.20)
Total versus out-of-pocket health expenditured
Total health expenditure (per unit increase in the natural log) 3.60 (1.82–7.12) 3.79 (0.98–14.65)
Out-of pocket expenditure as a percentage of total health expenditure (per 10% increase) 1.17 (0.42–3.20) 1.07 (0.14–8.30)
Total versus public health expendituree
Total health expenditure (per unit increase in the natural log) 4.86 (1.48–15.89) 3.81 (0.59–24.69)
Total health expenditure, per cent public (per 10% increase) 0.73 (0.27–2.00) 1.08 (0.14–8.06)

CI: confidence interval; GNI: gross national income; OR: odds ratio.

a The models were run for the World Health Organization’s Member States. Andorra, Cook Islands, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Monaco, Niue, San Marino and South Sudan were excluded because of small population or the incompleteness of the available data or both.

b Conditional on any transplantation activity.

c ORs adjusted for both variables and for the interaction between GNI and physicians per 1000 population.

d ORs adjusted for both variables and for the interaction between total and out-of-pocket health expenditures.

e ORs adjusted for both variables and for the interaction between total health expenditure and the percentage of total health expenditure accounted for by public funds.