Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

Roberto De Vogli, Anne Kouvonen & David Gimeno

Volume 92, Number 2, February 2014, 99-107A

Table 1. Age-standardized mean body mass index (BMI), per capita fast food transactions and other covariates in 25 high-income countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008

Variable 1999
2002
2005
2008
Mean SD Range Mean SD Range Mean SD Range Mean SD Range
Age-standardized mean BMI (kg/m2) 25.84 0.66 24.87–27.50 26.04 0.71 24.94–27.82 26.23 0.75 25.01–28.13 26.44 0.79 25.11–28.39
Fast food transactions, no.a 26.61 27.27 6.9–109.5 28.56 28.38 9.1–114.10 30.68 29.49 10.5–121.70 32.76 30.20 12.13–126.10
GDP per capitab 26 045.57 7853.44 11 212.92–42 866.46 27 966.32 7979.83 12 137.23–45050.22 29 665.49 8071.49 13 784.16–47 626.28 31 272.20 7792.31 16 454.81–48583.24
Per cent urban population 74.01 11.78 53.74–97.04 74.47 11.69 55.68–97.18 74.96 11.58 56.2–97.30 75.50 11.44 56.56–97.36
Population size (millions) 31.60 56.10 3.7–279.00 32.30 57.70 3.9–287.80 32.90 59.2 4.10–295.70 33.70 60.8 4.26–304.30
Openness to tradec 78.72 34.49 24.09–164.58 82.75 37.07 22.97–170.77 86.72 37.76 26.49–157.16 94.88 41.58 30.79–169.09
FDId 13.00 7.35 1.00–25.00 4.02 3.12 −0.56–12.97 2.03 3.34 −5.88–12.28 7.97 10.49 0.64–52.05
IEFe 67.63 6.89 54.20–81.70 70.00 6.75 58.00–80.70 69.86 7.28 59.00–82.30 72.12 7.08 60.30–82.50
Intake of soft drinksf 133.69 40.80 74.40–231.00 148.64 43.35 79.40–241.80 159.49 44.84 88.00–258.00 167.24 42.45 100.30–259.50
Intake of animal fatg 212.25 105.47 26.00–439.00 218.20 108.46 28.00–426.00 208.76 104.61 30.00–421.00 205.56 101.84 31.00–401.00
Total caloric intakeg 3392.29 238.25 2876.00–3791.00 3432.04 251.66 2794.00–3829.00 3426.52 225.21 2843.00–3799.00 3437.04 225.02 2866.00–3826.00

FDI, foreign direct investment; GDP, gross domestic product; GMID, Global Market Information Database; IEF, index of economic freedom; SD, standard deviation.

a Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.

b In constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity for comparability between countries.

c Imports and exports as a percentage of GDP.

d Net inflows as a percentage of GDP.

e Created by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal.31

f In litres per capita per year.

g In kcal per capita per day.

Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group;1 annual fast food transactions per capita: Euromonitor’s Passport Global Market Information Database (GMID);28 GDP per capita, percentage of the population living in urban areas, national population size, openness to trade and FDI: World Bank’s World Development Indicators database;29 intake of soft drinks: GMID;28 intake of animal fat and total caloric intake: Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization.37