The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis
Roberto De Vogli, Anne Kouvonen & David Gimeno
Volume 92, Number 2, February 2014, 99-107A
Table 2. Associations between fast food consumption and age-standardized body mass index (BMI) before and after adjustment for selected covariates, 1999–2008
|Variable||Age-standardized mean BMI
|Model 1a||Model 2a||Model 3a||Model 4a||Model 5a||Model 6a|
|Fast food transactions,b β (95% CI)||0.0657 (0.0433–0.0881)||0.0329 (0.0136–0.0522)||0.0907 (0.069–0.112)||0.042 (0.0249–0.0597)||0.06 (0.0439–0.0845)||0.0316 (0.0134–0.0498)|
|Log GDP per capita,c β (95% CI)||–||0.933 (0.4899–1.3774)||–||0.643 (0.2112–1.0762)||–||0.879 (0.4340–1.3257)|
|Per cent urban population||–||0.0856 (0.0551–0.1161)||–||0.07 (0.0483–0.0975)||–||0.0828 (0.0571–0.1086)|
|Population size||–||0.0116 (−0.0002–0.0236)||–||0.0514 (0.0121–0.0905)||–||0.0129 (0.0019–0.0239)|
|Openness to traded||–||0.0006 (−0.0021–0.0035)||–||0.0011 (−0.0016–0.0039)||–||0.0004 (−0.0026–0.0035)|
|FDIe||–||−0.001 (−0.0033–0.00005)||–||−0.0009 (−0.0032–0.0013)||–||−0.0011 (−0.0037–0.0015)|
|No. of country–years||250||245||190||186||270||265|
CI, confidence interval; FDI, foreign direct investment; GDP, gross domestic product.
a Model 1: all countries, unadjusted; Model 2: all countries, adjusted; Model 3: all countries except Anglo-Saxon economies (i.e. Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America), unadjusted; Model 4: all countries except Anglo-Saxon economies, adjusted; Model 5: all countries plus Asian countries (i.e. Japan and the Republic of Korea), unadjusted; Model 6: all countries except Asian countries, adjusted.
b Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.
c In constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity for comparability between countries.
d Imports and exports as a percentage of GDP.
e Net inflows as a percentage of GDP.
Note: The table displays the increase in age-standardized mean BMI associated with a 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita and in other covariates and with a 10% increase in GDP per capita. All models used robust standard errors clustered by country to reflect non-independence of sampling and robustness to heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The covariates that were adjusted for in Model 2, Model 4 and Model 6 were GDP per capita, urbanization, openness to trade, FDI and population size.
Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group;1 annual fast food transactions per capita: Euromonitor’s Passport Global Market Information Database;28 GDP per capita, percentage of the population living in urban areas, national population size, openness to trade and FDI: World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.29