Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

Roberto De Vogli, Anne Kouvonen & David Gimeno

Volume 92, Number 2, February 2014, 99-107A

Table 2. Associations between fast food consumption and age-standardized body mass index (BMI) before and after adjustment for selected covariates, 1999–2008

Variable Age-standardized mean BMI
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a Model 5a Model 6a
Fast food transactions,b β (95% CI) 0.0657 (0.0433–0.0881) 0.0329 (0.0136–0.0522) 0.0907 (0.069–0.112) 0.042 (0.0249–0.0597) 0.06 (0.0439–0.0845) 0.0316 (0.0134–0.0498)
Log GDP per capita,c β (95% CI) 0.933 (0.4899–1.3774) 0.643 (0.2112–1.0762) 0.879 (0.4340–1.3257)
Per cent urban population 0.0856 (0.0551–0.1161) 0.07 (0.0483–0.0975) 0.0828 (0.0571–0.1086)
Population size 0.0116 (−0.0002–0.0236) 0.0514 (0.0121–0.0905) 0.0129 (0.0019–0.0239)
Openness to traded 0.0006 (−0.0021–0.0035) 0.0011 (−0.0016–0.0039) 0.0004 (−0.0026–0.0035)
FDIe −0.001 (−0.0033–0.00005) −0.0009 (−0.0032–0.0013) −0.0011 (−0.0037–0.0015)
No. of country–years 250 245 190 186 270 265

CI, confidence interval; FDI, foreign direct investment; GDP, gross domestic product.

a Model 1: all countries, unadjusted; Model 2: all countries, adjusted; Model 3: all countries except Anglo-Saxon economies (i.e. Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America), unadjusted; Model 4: all countries except Anglo-Saxon economies, adjusted; Model 5: all countries plus Asian countries (i.e. Japan and the Republic of Korea), unadjusted; Model 6: all countries except Asian countries, adjusted.

b Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.

c In constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity for comparability between countries.

d Imports and exports as a percentage of GDP.

e Net inflows as a percentage of GDP.

Note: The table displays the increase in age-standardized mean BMI associated with a 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita and in other covariates and with a 10% increase in GDP per capita. All models used robust standard errors clustered by country to reflect non-independence of sampling and robustness to heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The covariates that were adjusted for in Model 2, Model 4 and Model 6 were GDP per capita, urbanization, openness to trade, FDI and population size.

Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group;1 annual fast food transactions per capita: Euromonitor’s Passport Global Market Information Database;28 GDP per capita, percentage of the population living in urban areas, national population size, openness to trade and FDI: World Bank’s World Development Indicators database.29