The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis
Roberto De Vogli, Anne Kouvonen & David Gimeno
Volume 92, Number 2, February 2014, 99-107A
Table 4. Associations between the index of economic freedom (IEF)a and fast food consumption and age-standardized mean body mass index (BMI), 1999–2008
|Variable||Fast food transactionsb (Model 1)c||Age-standardized BMI
|Unadjusted (Model 2)c||Adjusted for fast food transactions (Model 3)c|
|IEF, β (95% CI)||0.5501 (0.0238–0.8610)||0.0396 (0.0224–0.0569)||0.0048 (−0.0094–0.0190)|
|No. of country–years||250||250||250|
CI, confidence interval.
a Created by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal.31
b Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.
c The table displays the increase in annual fast food transactions per capita associated with a 1-unit increase in the IEF (Model 1), the increase in age-standardised BMI associated with a 1-unit increase in the IEF (Model 2), and the increase in age-standardised BMI associated with a 1-unit increase in the IEF after adjustment for annual fast food transactions per capita (Model 3).
Note: Models were corrected for country-specific fixed effects. All models used robust standard errors clustered by country to reflect non-independence of sampling and robustness to heteroskedasticity and serial correlation.
Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group;1 average annual fast food transactions per capita: Euromonitor’s Passport Global Market Information Database.28