The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis
Roberto De Vogli, Anne Kouvonen & David Gimeno
Volume 92, Number 2, February 2014, 99-107A
Table 5. Association between fast food consumption and age-standardized body mass index (BMI) using the index of economic freedom (IEF) as an instrumental variable, 1999–2008
|Variable||Fast food transactions,a first stage (Model 1)||Age-standardized mean BMI, two-stage least squares (Model 2)|
|Fast food transactions, β (95% CI)||–||0.0232 (0.0011–0.0452)|
|IEF,b β (95% CI)||0.2714 (0.1644–0.3785)||–|
|No. of country–years||244||244|
CI, confidence interval.
a Meals and refreshments sold annually per capita in local and transnational fast food outlets, including chain restaurants, independent eateries and convenience stores.
b Created by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal.31
Note: The table displays the increase in annual fast food transactions per capita associated with a 1-unit increase in the IEF (Model 1), and the increase in age-standardized BMI associated with a 1-unit increase in the number of annual fast food transactions per capita (Model 2) when using the IEF as an instrument for such transactions. Models included country-specific fixed effects using the Stata 12.0 “xtivreg” command for two-stage least squares regression with panel data. Models were corrected for log gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in constant 2005 United States dollars, adjusted for purchasing power parity), percentage of the population living in urban areas, national population size, openness to trade (imports and exports as a percentage of GDP), foreign direct investment (net inflows as a percentage of GDP), average intake of soft drinks (in litres per capita per year), average intake of animal fats (in kcal per capita per day) and average total caloric intake (in kcal per capita per day). All models used robust standard errors clustered by country to reflect non-independence of sampling and robustness to heteroskedasticity and serial correlation.
Sources: Age-standardized mean BMI: Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group;1 average annual fast food transactions per capita: EuroMonitor Passport Global Market Information Database.28