Bypassing primary care clinics for childbirth: a cross-sectional study in the Pwani region, United Republic of Tanzania
Margaret E Kruk, Sabrina Hermosilla, Elysia Larson & Godfrey M Mbaruku
Volume 92, Number 4, April 2014, 246-253
Table 1. Characteristics of the study population and local health system, United Republic of Tanzania, 2012
|Characteristic||Women (n = 1898)|
|< 20||248 (13.1)|
|> 35||237 (12.5)|
|Currently married or living with partner||1578 (83.1)|
|Primary education or higher||1231 (64.9)|
|Primary occupation as farmer or homemakerb||1481 (79.0)|
|Self-rated health as goodc||1332 (70.2)|
|No. of children, mean (SD)||2.9 (1.8)|
|First delivery||484 (25.7)|
|Consumes > 2 meals per day||1890 (99.6)|
|Listens to the radio||1657 (87.3)|
|Watches television||456 (24.0)|
|Has a mobile phone||1466 (77.3)|
|Health care utilization and quality rating|
|At least 1 antenatal care visit||1816 (96.4)|
|≥ 4 antenatal care visits||1251 (66.4)|
|Has health insurance||116 (6.2)|
|> 5 visits to local clinic in past year||555 (30.7)|
|Perceived overall quality of care at local clinic as fair or poor||589 (33.3)|
|Electricity available||316 (16.6)|
|Performed ≥ 3 obstetric signal functions in past 3 monthsd||781 (41.1)|
|Upgrade or renovation within past year||384 (20.2)|
|Conducts community outreach||1611 (84.9)|
SD, standard deviation.
a Has completed primary school or was able to read all or part of a sentence in Swahili.
b Includes homemakers, farmers and house cleaners.
c Based on a “no problem” rating on a scale of all 5 items (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression) in the EQ-5D instrument (EuroQol Group, Rotterdam, Netherlands).
d Based on a maximum of 7, specified as follows: parenteral antibiotics, parenteral oxytocics, parenteral anticonvulsants, manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products, assisted vaginal delivery and newborn resuscitation with bag and mask.
Note: Data are no. (%) of subjects, unless otherwise indicated. For some rows, denominators differ from 1898 owing to missing data.