Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Bypassing primary care clinics for childbirth: a cross-sectional study in the Pwani region, United Republic of Tanzania

Margaret E Kruk, Sabrina Hermosilla, Elysia Larson & Godfrey M Mbaruku

Volume 92, Number 4, April 2014, 246-253

Table 1. Characteristics of the study population and local health system, United Republic of Tanzania, 2012

Characteristic Women (n = 1898)
Women
Demographic
    Age (years)  
      < 20 248 (13.1)
      20–35 1412 (74.4)
      > 35 237 (12.5)
    Muslim 1528 (80.5)
    Currently married or living with partner 1578 (83.1)
    Primary education or higher 1231 (64.9)
    Literatea 1422 (75.1)
    Primary occupation as farmer or homemakerb 1481 (79.0)
    Self-rated health as goodc 1332 (70.2)
    No. of children, mean (SD) 2.9 (1.8)
    First delivery 484 (25.7)
Household assets  
    Electricity 143 (7.5)
    Consumes > 2 meals per day 1890 (99.6)
    Listens to the radio 1657 (87.3)
    Watches television 456 (24.0)
    Has a mobile phone 1466 (77.3)
Health care utilization and quality rating  
    At least 1 antenatal care visit 1816 (96.4)
    ≥ 4 antenatal care visits 1251 (66.4)
    Has health insurance 116 (6.2)
    > 5 visits to local clinic in past year 555 (30.7)
    Perceived overall quality of care at local clinic as fair or poor 589 (33.3)
Local clinics  
Electricity available 316 (16.6)
Performed ≥ 3 obstetric signal functions in past 3 monthsd 781 (41.1)
Upgrade or renovation within past year 384 (20.2)
Conducts community outreach 1611 (84.9)

SD, standard deviation.

a Has completed primary school or was able to read all or part of a sentence in Swahili.

b Includes homemakers, farmers and house cleaners.

c Based on a “no problem” rating on a scale of all 5 items (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression) in the EQ-5D instrument (EuroQol Group, Rotterdam, Netherlands).

d Based on a maximum of 7, specified as follows: parenteral antibiotics, parenteral oxytocics, parenteral anticonvulsants, manual removal of placenta, removal of retained products, assisted vaginal delivery and newborn resuscitation with bag and mask.

Note: Data are no. (%) of subjects, unless otherwise indicated. For some rows, denominators differ from 1898 owing to missing data.